Unformatted text preview: TREATY EDUCATION KIT
24 Activities with Teaching Guides and Resources Organisation: Auckland Workers Educational Association (AWEA) Project Team: Jen Margaret - Project Leader (AWEA)
Christine Herzog – Coordinator (AWEA)
Deborah Radford – Resource Development (AWEA)
Karena Stephens-Wilson - Maori Treaty Educator 31 March 2011 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this project was to support provision of Treaty education in the tertiary sector by making
teaching resources easily accessible. A larger, but longer-term, goal is to develop a virtual community of
Treaty education practitioners.
The project addressed several current problems:
i the Treaty of Waitangi is unique; teaching resources are not available from overseas; there are no
Treaty ‘textbooks’ for tertiary education ii because it has been taught for fewer than twenty years, teaching resources have not been
published to date iii due to the fact that it is a minor part of the curriculum, it is not a recognised area of teaching
expertise iv there are very few Treaty educators in the country, therefore it is not available in most community
ACE programmes v the Treaty is a controversial subject about which most adults know very little; many educators avoid
becoming involved and/or do not provide quality learning experiences vi there are insufficient numbers of people wanting to learn about becoming Treaty educators at any
specific time and place to have a formal professional development programme. Therefore, this
project was designed to provide teaching guidelines for a relatively large collection of existing
teaching/learning activities for Treaty education and to publish them As a tangata Tiriti (tauiwi) organisation, we work predominantly with tangata Tiriti, so our teaching activities
have been designed for, and the guides will be oriented toward, this audience. However, the resources have
been used by Māori educators with Māori learners as well.
The benefit of this project to teaching and learning is embodied in the concept of ‘ako’, because the activities
published have been developed over many years of teacher-learner interaction; each new Treaty educator
could develop comparable resources eventually but this project will make new Treaty educators more
effective quickly – which is particularly important given the high turnover and absence of community of
practice for this field. NOTES FOR NEW TREATY EDUCATORS
Generally the primary interest of learners is ‘what does the Treaty mean for me (personally and/or in my
work)?’ Therefore, if possible, it is important to try to include some content relating to that; one simple
possibility is the Personal Responses activity.
It is a rather daunting reality for Treaty educators that most adults think Treaty education is important (good
news) — for others rather than themselves — (not so good).
(See surveys by UMR published on the Human Rights Commission website
Our own surveys suggest that the majority of our learners (about 75% of those in the formal adult education
sector and about half of those in the community sector) would not choose to participate in Treaty education.
The reasons for this are generally some combination of ignorance (about the Treaty/NZ history) and fear (of
being expected to accept ‘policitically correct’ ideas, of confrontation, of being made to feel guilty, of having to
address difficult issues). We use several strategies for managing this that try to address the reasons for it,
including: acknowledging the compulsory aspect and learner resistance at the beginning of the first session
(unless it is a workshop at which attendance is purely voluntary) emphasising that this is a common attitude which usually produces some nervous giggles as well as a
relaxation of tension and that at the end of workshops the majority believe that Treaty education should
be compulsory for all adults (we do have a question to this effect on our evaluation form as a way of
measuring changes in attitudes)
using The Treaty is the Wave activity at the beginning of every first session, even if the whole Treaty unit
is only one hour
including questions in the evaluation form about ‘what concerns did you have before this course
started?’, ‘are they still concerns?’, and ‘why/why not?’ – to monitor the effectiveness of our strategies It is a misconception that the compulsory education sector provides more content about NZ history/the Treaty
now than in the past. Of course some schools provide very good teaching in this area (and the Year 13 NZ
history curriculum is excellent), but very few adults in New Zealand, regardless of age, know the basics
about the Treaty (see research published annually by the Human Rights Commission: search using ‘UMR’ on
One consequence of this is that much of what is taught in the tertiary sector only requires secondary level
comprehension. Even learners in post-graduate programmes may not have basic understanding about the
Treaty, which makes it very difficult for them to achieve post-graduate level learning outcomes in the usually
very limited amount of teaching time available. We therefore recommend that basic Treaty knowledge be a
programme entry criterion (similar to English – it’s part of being a student in Aotearoa/New Zealand);
however for this to work there must be realistic options for them to achieve this. The Treaty Resource Centre
is developing a self-directed introductory course for adults and in Auckland we regularly offer free Treaty
workshops ( ); if you want to discuss other options, feel free to contact us
Often those who say they know nothing or little about the Treaty know at least as much as, if not more than,
those who say they have some knowledge, for several reasons: some people think they know a fair bit because they don’t realise how much there is to know (or how
much of what they ‘know’ is incorrect – see third point); interestingly, the UMR research cited above
indicates that adults are increasingly aware that they don’t know very much
conversely, some people who say they know little, do so because they realise how much there is to
there are so many popular myths about the Treaty that people often think they know more than they do
(the True - False Quiz is a good way of establishing this in a way that doesn’t make people feel ‘wrong’)
virtually anyone living in NZ knows some things, which can be developed through guided questioning ←
Learners who have attended several Treaty courses previously, or read widely, may know many facts about
New Zealand history/the Treaty, but this is very different from understanding why it was written, what it meant
to the various parties at the time, what went wrong, etc. For us, a significant indicator of success is when a
learner says the equivalent of ‘aha … now it makes sense’.
We cannot emphasise enough how useful The Treaty is the Wave activity is in achieving good outcomes, not
only for the reasons identified in the several resources available for using it, but also because it reminds us
of Paulo Freire’s point that to be effective educators our pedagogy must be adapted to fit the learners’
realities, which often is not where we think they should be or our own reality. We believe that an ‘aha’
moment is an indicator that an educational activity was a good match with the learner’s reality at that point.
Following on from the above, all the teaching activities included in the set are effective — at least in some
contexts, but this does not necessarily mean in all contexts! Please read the notes carefully to check
whether they are suitable for your group. Furthermore, they need to suit the teacher/facilitator’s own
strengths, personality, etc. We have frequently noticed that an activity that works with one educator will not
work with another, even if their knowledge, skills and experience are comparable and they are working with
similar groups of learners. Don’t give up if an activity does not work for you — try another one. Also, note
that the copyright on these activities means that you are free to change them as long as you acknowledge
the source of the original. We would like to encourage everyone to develop these activities further; many of
the ones we have published now are much modified versions of ones we started using in the 1980s. We
have found that paying close attention to learners’ responses is the best guide to effective teaching generally
and in developing educational activities/resources in particular. Feel free to contact us if you would like to
discuss an idea before trying it with learners ([email protected]).
Treaty education for adults in the 21st century is significantly different from the last quarter of the 20th:century: there is more of it and it is spread throughout the tertiary education sector
there are more educators
learners generally bring more positive attitudes to it
we have many more resources for educators and learners Welcome to the emerging community of practice for Treaty education!
Please join us on the website ( ) where you can ask questions, access more
resources, share ideas, get support. Whāia te mātauranga hei
oranga mō koutou.
Seek after learning for the
sake of your well-being. Treaty Resource Centre
He Puna Matauranga o Treaty of Waitangi Activities Complex
3 Key Events leading to the Treaty 4 Māori and Settler societies 5 Pre-Treaty views of each other 7 Looking at what the Treaty Articles say 9 Implications of the Treaty Articles 10 Thinking about Treaty Rights and Responsibilities 12 Native Land Court Scenario 14 True-False Quiz 15 Matching Treaty Terms 16 Significance of the Declaration of Independence 18 Who had authority 24 Thinking about relationships 2 Simple
1 Events in Aotearoa before the Treaty 2 Explaining Faces 6 Signing of the Treaty Play 8 The Treaty is/was 11 Motis Test 13 The Wave is the Treaty 17 Lord Normanby's instructions 19 Treaty - Organisational Audit 20 Treaty Quotes 21 Personal Responses 22 Treaty Review 23 Thinking about relationships 1 GUIDE TO ACTIVITY DESCRIPTIONS
TOPIC: This section relates to the nine categories:
3) early European contact;
4) British engagement;
5) the Treaty (including later interpretations);
9) other/process openings/closings.
TYPE: The options are icebreaker, energiser, brief overview (of topic), setting context (for topic), in-depth (on
LENGTH: Usual length of basic activity. If different for alternate version/s, that will be included in the
description of variation.
EXPLICIT PURPOSE/S: Primarily to assist facilitators when using the guides, but also those writing the
guides - explicit purposes are the ones you share with the participants.
IMPLICIT PURPOSE/S: Primarily to assist facilitators when using the guides, but also those writing the
guides - implicit purposes are ones that aren't usually shared with participants.
GROUP SIZE: This section includes any restrictions on size of the group.
CHARACTERISTICS: This section identifies for whom this activity does or does not work well: demographic
characteristics, level of prior knowledge, level of English, level of academic ability, occupational context, etc
FACILITATOR KNOWLEDGE NEEDED: Level of knowledge about the Treaty that the facilitator needs:
low - activity includes all the necessary knowledge;
medium - the facilitator would need to know more than the participants;
high - a wide and/or deep range of knowledge is needed.
FACILITATION SKILLS NEEDED: Level of skill needed by the facilitator:
low - just needs to have basic group process skills;
medium - tricky situations might arise;
high - tricky situations are likely to arise.
RESOURCES NEEDED: Hand-outs, game pieces, OHTs, posters, CD/DVD, etc; it is assumed that
participants will have pens/pencils and facilitator will bring whiteboard markers/duster.
TECHNOLOGY NEEDED: Any equipment needed other than whiteboard, e.g. OHP, laptop/datashow. Also
any characteristics of the room other than space for everyone to sit, e.g. if chairs need to be moveable,
tables, floor space for activities/
INSTRUCTIONS: Spoken scripts are represented by italics.
TEACHING TIPS: Any suggestions about ways to make delivery easier; points to be careful about.
COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS: See possible responses in FAQ on the Treaty Educators website.
VARIATIONS: Different ways to use the basic activity, for example, in shorter or longer time-frame or as a
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT CONTENT: Sources of information about the content of the activity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Who developed the the activity (and why) and who else contributed. 1. Events in Aotearoa before the Treaty
TOPIC: 2) Pre-European contact; 3) Early European contact.
TYPE: setting the context.
LENGTH: 10–20 minutes.
EXPLICIT PURPOSE/S: To show the relative timing of historical events and to remind participants that
there's a long, rich history in this place before Europeans arrived.
IMPLICIT PURPOSE/S: To validate Māori connection of history to creation.
GROUP SIZE: Any.
FACILITATOR KNOWLEDGE NEEDED:
medium - if done quickly with information lightly covered;
high - if done in greater depth (can provide more description and historiography).
FACILITATION SKILLS NEEDED: Low
RESOURCES NEEDED: Events in Aotearoa before the Treaty worksheet; Events in Aotearoa before the Treaty Answers (for the facilitator)
TECHNOLOGY NEEDED: None
1. Introduce simply, e.g. This next activity will help set the context for the Treaty.
2. Hand out the worksheet: Events in Aotearoa before the Treaty.
3. Explain that the spiral is a timeline. Ask participants to work with a partner, or in a group of three, to place
the events listed in the table in their correct order with 1 being the first or earliest event and 8 the closest to
the Treaty signing. It may be useful to write 1 = earliest and 8 = most recent on the white board.
4. Allow 5 minutes to complete the worksheet (if participants are engrossed in active learning from each
other you may want to allow more time, but listen for any misinformation that you may need to address with
the whole group).
5. Ask the whole group ‘which event happened first? second? etc’ and encourage discussion when there is
disagreement. At the end, confirm the correct order.
6. Allow time for questions and clarifications (5 to 10 minutes).
TEACHING TIPS: Māori histories are a specialised subject and not easily explained from a Pākehā
perspective. In the introduction: emphasise that this is an intentionally superficial approach - not intended to focus on Māori history and
culture explain that there has been debate in the past about some of the Māori settlement events but there is
now consensus amongst experts, e.g. the 'great fleet' as a single migration is a myth that has been
overturned use language such as 'super-natural' rather than 'mythical or 'gods'.
COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS: Are the parts about Rangi/Papa and Maui, Māori myths?
VARIATIONS: You can bring two pairs together into a larger group to compare answers and reach a
consensus about the correct order of events. This can enable discussion and knowledge sharing and allow
less confident participants to speak or ask questions. An experienced facilitator with in-depth knowledge may
be able to lead a more detailed description of early relationships between hapū and early Europeans.
Alternately, this can be done as a whole group activity using the following method:
a) create a timeline on the floor using pieces of paper as markers;
b) allocate the events (A-H) to group members (more than one participant to an event depending on group
numbers); c) ask participants locate themselves in the appropriate place on the timeline according to the event they
d) provide the answers and ask participants to discuss in pairs one thing they learnt from the exercise.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT CONTENT:
The Separation of Rangi and Papa:
1. The Encyclopedia of New Zealand (2009). Ranginua - the sky father. Retrieved from
; and Papatūānuku – the earth mother. Retrieved from
2. Walker, R. (2004) Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou: Struggle without end (2nd ed) (pp. 11-14). Auckland, New
Zealand: Penguin Books. 3.
6. Maui Fishes up the North Island:
The Encyclopedia of New Zealand (2009). Māui. Retrieved from .
Walker, R. (2004) Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou: Struggle without end (2nd ed) (pp 15-19). Auckland, New
Zealand: Penguin Books.
Early Polynesian Explorers:
The Encyclopedia of New Zealand (2009). Kupe. Retrieved from: .
Walker, R. (2004) Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou: Struggle without end (2nd ed) (pp 34-37). Auckland, New
Zealand: Penguin Books. 7. The Great Fleet:
Walker, R. (2004). Ka whawhai tonu matou: Struggle without end (2nd ed) (pp 37-39). Auckland, New
Zealand: Penguin Books. 8. Early European Explorers:
The Encyclopedia of New Zealand (2009). European discovery of New Zealand. Retrieved from
. Whalers, sealers and early European traders:
Encyclopedia of New Zealand (2009). Sealers and whalers – pre1840 contact Retrieved from:
10. Nauman, R., Harrison, L. & Winiata, T. (1990) Te Tiriti o Waitangi: the living Treaty (pp 8-13). Auckland,
New Zealand: New House Publishers Ltd.
9. Early European missionaries:
11. Ministry for Culture and Heritage (2008). The Christian missionaries. Retrieved from:
Early European settlers:
12. Naumann, R. (1990). The Tauiwi, the later immigrants, (p. 8). Auckland, New Zealand: New House
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Christine Herzog. Events in Aotearoa before the Treaty: Answers
Order on the worksheet
Event Order A Early European explorers 5 B Early Polynesian explorers (Kupe, Toi, Whatonga) 3 C Separation of Rangi and Papa 1 D Early European missionaries 7 E Te Hekenga Nui (“The Great Fleet”) 4 F Whalers, sealers and early European traders 6 G Early European settlers 8 H Maui fishes up the North Island 2 Correct sequence of events
C Separation of Rangi and Papa
H Maui fishes up the North Island
B Early Polynesian explorers (Kupe, Toi, Whatonga)
E Te Hekenga Nui (“The Great Fleet”)
A Early European explorers
F Whalers, sealers and early European traders
D Early European missionaries
G Early European settlers Treaty Resource Centre
He Puna Matauranga o
Te Tiriti 2. Explaining Faces
TOPIC: 9) Other .
TYPE: Ice-breaker or energiser.
LENGTH: 1 minute/person in group.
EXPLICIT PURPOSE/S: To connect the group to the overall subject and to provide an opportunity for people
to engage without feeling exposed.
IMPLICIT PURPOSE/S: To give the facilitator a sense of people's attitudes. Although they are not requested
to share their own view, each is choosing a perspective, for example, a person could say 'this person is
smiling because the Treaty is being applied' OR 'this person is smiling because the Treaty isn't being
GROUP SIZE: Up to 30.
FACILITATOR KNOWLEDGE NEEDED: None needed.
FACILITATION SKILLS NEEDED: Low (medium-high if variation of people sharing own feelings).
RESOURCES NEEDED: Copies of Feelings about the Treaty cut up into individual faces; laminate if to be
used often. You can download different images from:
TECHNOLOGY NEEDED: None.
INSTRUCTIONS: Hand out one face card to people as they enter the room; or have a box by the door and ask participants
to take one; or place one on each chair face down. Look at the face that you have. Think for a minute about the person's expression and what they are
thinking about the Treaty that might produce that expression. I'll do a couple first as examples [have 2 or
o ‘This person is feeling confused by the Treaty because they hear different things about what it means.’
o ‘ This person is feeling angry about the Treaty because it creates divisions amongst New Zealanders.‘ You can express views that you have heard from others — they don’t have to be your own. There will
probably be some ...
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