Midterm Study Guide.pdf - Midterm Exam Review Chapter 1...

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Midterm Exam Review Chapter 1 Sociologism Early sociology had to assert itself as a science distinct from other sciences Durkheim caused sociologism, though his own work was social psychological. He wanted to ensure that social facts were recognized as unique, not derived from psychological facts and principles Social norms are behavioral rules and expectations that regulate behavior in relationships Organizations are groups that share a common purpose and contain a formal set of rules and structure Social institutions consist of long-standing patterns of interaction in a large group or society; they include: Family Economy Religion Education Government Culture can also influence social-psychological processes is a society’s unique patterns of behavior and beliefs Components of culture include: Language Symbols values and beliefs Norms material artifacts Breaching experiments Chapter 2 Match perspectives to typical methods (treat Traditional SI and Structural SI as separate perspectives) Chicago School (Traditional Symbolic Interactionism) Iowa and Indiana Schools (structural symbolic interactionism) Unstable (highly fluid) nature of social reality Stable (fluid to some degree, but with persistent patterns) nature of social reality
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Interested in the process of interaction between people Social structure places constraints on people, organizing and directing behavior Focus on observation & actor’s definition of situation; qualitative & interpretive methods ( naturalistic observation ) Interaction is predictable and can be studied using quantitative techniques ( surveys ) Framing process by which individuals transform the meaning of a situation using basic cognitive structures provided by society We observe others’ behavior in a given situation and use our experiences and cultural knowledge to decide what is going on and how to behave in that situation Social Scripts: appropriate thoughts, feelings and behavior that should be displayed in a particular frame Cues might not be clear Thomas Theorem When people define situations as real, those situations become real in their consequences E.g. self-fulfilling prophecy Primary & secondary groups Charles Horton Cooley argued that there are two essential groups in society Primary groups (family and friends) Secondary groups (co-workers; instrumental needs) Primary and Secondary groups serve different functions Reference groups include people we look to as a source of standards and identity You might not interact with members of reference groups The type of group we are in can affect how we think, feel and behave Findings of Tajfel’s (1971) study on in-groups and out-groups Results #1: Allocations to two members of same group were made on the basis of maximum fairness (close to same amount awarded to each)
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