Microbiology and Virology Midterm Review.docx

Microbiology and Virology Midterm Review.docx - Lecture 1...

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Lecture 1: introduction to microbiology Microbiology – microorganisms (microbes) and their effect on living organisms. Robert Hooke – describe microbes and illustrations of molds in book Leeuwenhoek –protozoa in 1674 and bacteria in 1676. Developed a microscope. Lecture 2: What are Bacteria Golden age of microbiology – scientists began to realize microbes play an important role in human health. The scientific method – observations question--> hypothesis experiment designed +conducted results accept, reject or modify Francesco Redi – Provided evidence that life does not generate spontaneously through his meat in a container experiment. Louis Pasteur – Provided evidence that life does not generate spontaneously “S shape” flask. Germ theory of disease – Developed by Pasteur. microorganisms are responsible for disease. Lead to sterilization procedures and vaccines. Robert Koch – provided evidence for germ theory. Examined blood of infected animals and identified pathogens responsible for anthrax and TB. First photo of bacteria in diseased tissues. Lab techniques for bacteria. Koch postulates – causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy host. Agent must be isolated and grown outside the host. When agent is introduced to healthy host, host must get sick. Agent must then be found in a diseased experimental host. Prokaryotes – before nucleus. Lack various internal structures bound with phospholipid membrane. Composed of bacteria and archaea. Cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleoid, cytoplasm, plasmid and ribosomes. Eukaryotes – have nucleus. Internal membrane bound organelles. Composed of algae, protozoa, fungi, animals and plants. Animal and human cells don’t have cell walls. Cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, nuclear membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, ER, cytoplasm and golgi complex. Bacterial cell wall – provide structure, shape and protection. Various shapes: coccus, rod, spirillum, spirochete, budding + appendage and filamentous. Assist in attaching to other cells or resisting antimicrobial drugs. Composed of peptidoglycan. Gram positive – thick peptidoglycan. Teichoic acids. Purple after staining. 60% mycolic acid helps cells survive desiccation. Gram negative – Thin peptidoglycan. Bilayer membrane outside of phospholipids, protein and lipopolysaccharides. LPS keeps away positively charge molecules. Lipid A of LPS can cause fever, inflammation, shock and blood clotting. Appear pink after staining. Cytoplasm of bacteria Cytoplasm – gelatinous material inside the cell Cytosol – Contains nutrients, lipids, carbohydrates, protein, ions, waste Inclusion – Deposit of lipid, starch, nitrogen, phosphate or sulfur. Important for diagnostics to identify some pathogens Endospores – Important for durability and pathogenicity.
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