Exam 3 Notes Psych 333.docx - Chapter 8 LO1 Discuss the...

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Chapter 8 LO1: Discuss the major functions of motion perception and the ways of which we can perceive motion o Motion provides information about objects E.g. camouflaged animals Easily hide while stationary; figure separates from ground when moving o Motion attracts attention (bug on the corner of the eye makes you flinch Attentional capture Salience of a moving stimulus How do you attract someone’s attention at the airport or stadium? o Motion helps us understand events in the environment Information value… If a picture is worth a thousand word how much is a video worth? Event Segmentation Theory (Zacks) Event- a segment of time at a set location with a beginning and end Event Boundary- break between one event and another LO 2: Describe real and apparent motion, what the aperture problem, is, and how the visual system “solves” this problem o Real motion Motion of an object o Illusory motion Apparent motion- two stimuli near each other are alternated Beta movement (go back and forth) Phi phenomenon o Induced motion Motion of one large object causes the perception of motion in a smaller object o Motion aftereffects After viewing a moving stimulus, you may perceive a nonmoving stimulus to be in motion… in the opposite direction Waterfall illusion Spiral aftereffect o Comparing Real and Apparent motion Larsen, et al fMRI while viewing 3 displays control conditions: two dots in different positions are flashed simultaneously Real motion: a small dot is moved back and forth Apparent motion: dots are flashed so they appear to move Control: each dot activated a separate area of visual cortex
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Apparent and Real motion: activation of visual cortex from both sets of stimuli was similar Conclusion: same brain mechanism for real and apparent o Take motion perception from Top-down to Bottom-up o The key question in all this is how does an observer represent 3 situations: Table 8.1 in the book LO 3: Detail how lesioning, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and microstimulation have been used to study how neurons signal motion o skip LO 4: State the major principles of the corollary discharge theory of movement perception, and summarize the behavioral and physiological support for the theory o What we want to explain: An object moves and the observer is stationary An image that moves on the observer’s retina An object moves, and the observer follows the object with his or her eyes Movement is tracked; image is stationary on the retina An observer moves (or his or her eyes move) through a stationary environment Image of environment moves across retina but environment is perceived as stationary o Gibson’s (ecological) View: Information for perception is present in the environment Optic Array: structure created by surface, textures, and contours, which change as the observer moves through the environment o Local disturbance in the optic array
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