Neur 2202 Midterm 1 review.docx

Neur 2202 Midterm 1 review.docx - Neur2202 Chapter 1...

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Neur2 202 Chapter 1: Embryogenesis and Neural Induction Protozoan – a single celled microscopic animal. Reproduction by splitting into two. But evolution favoured cells clumping together – increased survival… enter… Metazoan – a multicellular animals. Nerve net make up the first nervous system – cnidarians such as jelly fish, anemones and hydra have specialized cells, including neurons that form a network throughout the body. Nerve net – has cells similar to nerve cells distributed throughout the body (unlike humans where they’re in the nervous system – brain and spinal cord). Vertebrates – early in development all vertebrates look alike. Very early on in development, basic systems develop the same way before becoming more complicated as embryos mature. Embryonic vertebrate nervous system – forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are visible in the human embryo at about 28 days. Gross development of the human nervous system – Prenatal stages: zygote: fertilization to 2 weeks, Embryo: 2 to 8 weeks and Fetus: 9 weeks to birth. Neural plate (3 weeks after conception): thickened region of the ectodermal layer that gives rise to the neural tube Neural tube: structure in the early stage of brain development from which the brain and spinal cord develop. Major events: day 49 – embryo begins to resemble a miniature person. Day 60 – sexual differentiation in both genital and brain region. Day 100 – brain looks distinctly human. 7 months – Gyri and sulci begin to form. 9 months – brain looks like an adult brain Historical perspective on developmental biology – Aristotle suggested epigenesist. Process by which successfully more, more complex body structures appear over development. The development of microscopes in the 17 th century allowed more in depth analysis of development and anatomical structure. Challenged epigenesist with preformation. The invisible world is made visible – Robert hookes drawings of a flea, as seen through a microscope, revealed a complexity of body shapes, joints and hairs that was shocking for many people. when hooke trained his microscope on thin slices of cork, he could discern individual compartments, which he called cells. The non-existent made visible – Nicolas hartsoeker published a drawing of a sperm cell in 1694, with a “little infant” tucked inside its head, he furnished the iconic image of preformationism, which would supplant Aristotle, epigenetic perspective for over a century. Thought there were itty bitty people inside sperm which was then incubated and grown inside a uterus. Ontogeny – the process of individual development, growing up and growing old! The process of ontogeny – early embryos are spherical clumps of cells which all look alike. As ontogeny proceed, progressively more and more complex tissues and organs appear.
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  • Winter '18
  • cells

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