Genetics 2104 Midterm 1.docx

Genetics 2104 Midterm 1.docx - Genetics 2104 Midterm 1...

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Genetics 2104 Midterm 1 Lecture 1 Genetics is the field of biology that studied heredity and variation Offspring will contain genetic information that has been transmitted (inherited) from parents Variations in population arise from: Mutation Gametogenesis (independent assortment and crossing over) Random fertilization Although we are fascinated with human genetics relatively few of those studies have actually involved humans because humans are lousy model systems: Humans have relatively few progeny Intergenerational time is long Controlled experiments with humans have significant ethical issues 1860 – Mendel’s work published 1900-1940s – chromosome theory of inheritance proposed. Transmission of genetics evolved. 1900s – Mendel’s work rediscovered, correlated with chromosome behaviour in meiosis. 1940s-1950s – DNA shown to carry genetic information. Watson-Crick model of DNA 1950s-1970s – Era of molecular genetics. Gene expression, regulation understood. 1970s-1990s – Recombinant DNA technology developed. DNA cloning begins 1990s-now – genomics begins. Human genome project initiated. New technologies are evolving that may allow some of these deleterious mutations to be edited. Forward versus Reverse Genetics Forward – identify mutant phenotype, do genetic analysis, do the “wet” biology, Identify and analyze gene map and clone gene. Reverse – take a predicted gene sequence, alter gene function in a cell or an organism, determine phenotype and deduce function Different areas of genetics Classical genetics o Mendelian genetics (inheritance patterns) o Pedigree analysis o Linkage analysis and gene mapping o Gene interactions Molecular genetics o DNA RNA protein o Regulation of gene expression o Recombinant DNA technology Population genetics o Nature of genotypic and phenotypic variation within whole populations o Role of variation in evolution Genomics o The study of geomes (also proteomics, other – omics technologies and bio-information) Lecture 2 – mitosis and meiosis Eukaryotes – Centriole – found in centrosome of animal cells. Not always present in plant, fungus cells. Mitochondrion – DNA also in chloroplast in plant cells In Prokaryotes there are nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) that create domains, and maintain the topological organization of the chromosome Chromosomes Homologous chromosome o A similar but not identical o Carry genes for the same inherited characteristics o May carry different versions of the same gene o One is inherited from the mother, the other is inherited from the father Sex chromosomes o Sex determining chromosomes are not homologous but behave as homologs during meiosis because the pseudo-autosomal regions contain homologous sequences that are able to pair and recombine during meiosis.
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