BEM 4351 - Unit VII Assessment.pdf

BEM 4351 - Unit VII Assessment.pdf - BEM 4351 Environmental...

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BEM 4351 Environmental Technology Unit VII Assessment Write an essay consisting of at least 500 words addressing ALL of the following topics (a. through k.): a. What are the primary three gases comprising the atmosphere? b. Explain how temperature varies with altitude. c. Describe the environmental lapse rate. d. Why are sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead of such importance that they are criteria pollutants under the NAAQS? e. What is the range of particle size for fly ash? f. Explain the greenhouse effect. g. Describe carbon capture and sequestration. Do you think it is viable? h. Discuss the operation of a high volume sampler. Why does it need an air pump? i. If the concentration of carbon monoxide is 2.9% at a location along the highway at 70oC, what is the concentration in ppm? j. Describe three air pollution control strategies listed on page 374 of our textbook. k. Explain the operation of a wet scrubber. Question (a.) What are the primary three gases comprising the atmosphere? Answer (a.) The atmosphere is a mixture of many different gases, but the air we breathe mostly consists of molecular nitrogen and oxygen. About 78 percent of unpolluted dry air is nitrogen and about 21 percent is oxygen. This nitrogen and oxygen combined make up approximately 99 percent of the atmosphere. The remaining 1 percent of filtered dry air is a mixture of several other gases. Most of that remaining 1 percent (about 0.9 percent) is the inert gas argon. The rest of it includes carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, helium, neon, ozone, and numerous other gases in trace (very small) amounts. (Nathanson & Schneider, 2015, pg.346) Question (b.) Explain how temperature varies with altitude. Answer (b.) Using the first law of thermodynamics, scientists have calculated a theoretical dry adiabatic lapse rate. Regardless of what the actual air temperature profile may be, a moving parcel of air always cool down 1°C for each 100 m it rises in the atmosphere and will warm up 1°C for every 100 m it sinks. This dry adiabatic lapse rate is calculated on the assumption that there is no moisture or water vapor in the air. Water, usually present in the atmosphere to some degree, emits or absorbs heat as it condenses or evaporates. As air rises, condensation occurs, producing a slower cooling rate (lower lapse rate) than for dry air. The average wet adiabatic lapse rate is about 6.5°C per km (3.5°F per 1000 ft). (Nathanson & Schneider, 2015, pg.348) Question (c.) Describe the environmental lapse rate. Answer (c.) Atmospheric stability depends on the rate of change of air temperature with altitude, that is, on the temperature gradient (or profile) that may prevail at a particular time and location. Normally, air temperatures in the troposphere decrease with increasing altitudes. But the rate at which the air temperature drops, called the environmental lapse rate, is of crucial importance with regard to atmospheric stability. Environmental lapse rate is also called prevailing or ambient lapse rate.
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  • Fall '16
  • Stacy Murphy
  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Nathanson, air pollution control, environmental lapse rate

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