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Unformatted text preview: which of the followings belong Structural consistency of the goal and behaviour models? | Every scenario in the behaviour model must be covered by at least one goal in the goal model. Requirement engineering is the first phase in software lifecycle? | TRUE Software quality assurance is a key concern for Requirement quality assurance | FALSE RE deliverable is requirements document for system-to-be | TRUE RE is concerned with world and machine phenomena | TRUE Why do we need models for RE? | Provides structure for RE activities,Support for understanding, explanation to stakeholder ,Basis for making decisions ,Focus on key aspects (abstraction from multiple details) Which of following belong to System requirement statements? | Prescriptive statement referring to environment phenomena (not necessarily shared) What is requirement engineering? | Set of activities producing the requirements on a software-intensive system Which of the followings belong Assumption statements? | Statements to be satisfied by the environment of the software-to-be To make sure a software solution “correctly” solves some real-world problem, we must first fully understand and define | The context in which the problem arises, What problem needs to be solved in the real world Which of the followings statements belong to WHO dimension? | Assign responsibilities for the objective, services, and constraints among system-to-be components Which of the following statements belong to WHAT dimension? | Identify& define the system-to-be’s functional services Which of the following statements belong to WHY dimension? | Identify, analyze, refine the system-tobe’s objectives Which of the following belong to scope of RE? | WHO,WHY,WHAT dimension What are the activities producing the requirements on a software-intensive system? | Elicitation, Specification, Evaluation, Evolution management The prototype process is iterative | TRUE In active mode of storyboard, stakeholders contribute to the story. The storyboard is used for joint exploration | TRUE In passive mode of storyboard, stakeholders contribute to the story. The storyboard is used for explanation validation | TRUE Artifact-driven techniques rely more on specific types of interaction with stakeholders | FALSE All of the following actions belong to Domain understanding and Requirement elicitation expect | Understand the system-to-be and its context Which of the following techniques belongs to stakeholder-driven elicitation techniques? | Observation and ethnographic studies, Group sessions, Interviews According to performance requirements classes in a reusable catalogue, which of following belong to Time? | Response time, Throughput According to performance requirements classes in a reusable catalogue, which of following belong to Space? | Main memory, Secondary storage Which of the following statements about weighing questions is true? | A weighting question provides a list of statements that need to be weighted by the respondent to express the perceived importance, preference or risk of the corresponding statement. What is the first phase of RE process? | Domain understanding and elicitation What is the goal of Prototypes & mock-up? | Check requirement adequacy from direct user feedback, by showing reduced sketch of software-to-be in action 1 (3)/Which of the following statements about Software Prototypes are true? | 1 (3)/Its aim to get early feedback from stakeholders and prompt further elicitation 2 (3)/Which of the following statements about Software Prototypes are true? | 2 (3)/It is a quick implementation of some software aspects of the system-to-be 3 (3)/Which of the following statements about Software Prototypes are true? | 3/There are different kind of prototype depend on which aspects are being prototype What is the goal of Card sorts & repertory grids? | Acquire further into about concepts already elicited We need to acquire the contextual knowledge under which the system-to-be will be elaborated. This … | Knowledge about the system-as-is, Knowledge about the organization,Knowledge about the domain Poor risk management is a major cause of software failure | TRUE A risk is an uncertain factor whose occurrence may result in loss of satisfaction of a corresponding objective | TRUE The Weak, Strong conflicts are more difficult to handle than… | TRUE Process-related risks are negative impacts on functional or non-functional objectives of the systems | FALSE Inconsistencies are highly rare in RE | TRUE Which of following are types of inconsistency in RE? | Terminology clash, Structure clash, Designation clash (B? Grammar class) List types of RE risk? | Product-related risks, Process-related risks (B? Architecture-related risks) What are the phrases of managing conflicts process? | Identify overlapping statements, Detect conflicts among them, document these, Generate conflict resolutions, Evaluate resolutions, select preferred (B? Resolves conflicts) What are the goals of risk assessment? | Assess likehood of risks (s? lu?ng), Assess severity of risks (m?c d?), Assess likehood of risk consequences (h?u qu?) What is last stage of managing conflicts process? | Evaluate resolution, select preferred (d?nh giá gi?i pháp, ch?n cách thích h?p) What are the phrases of RE risk management? | Risk identification (1xác d?nh), Risk assessment (2dánh giá), Risk control (3di?u khi?n) What is last phase of RE risk management? | Risk control Which of the following tactics belong to risk reduction tactics? | Avoid risk, Reduce consequence like hood, Reduce risk like hood, Mitigate risk consequence, (B?:Resolve risk) Which of the followings belong to Designation clash? (s?g?itên) | Same name for different concepts in different statements|e.g. “user” for “library user” vs. “library software user” Which of the followings belong to Structure clash? (C?utrúc) | Same concept structured differently in different statements|e.g. “latest return date” as time point (e.g. Fri 5pm) vs. time interval (e.g. Friday) Which of the followings belong to Terminology clash? (thu?tng?) | Same concept named differently in different statements|e.g. library management: “borrower” vs. “patron” A context diagram is a simple graph where nodes represent system components and edges represent connections through shared phenomena declared by the labels | TRUE Free documentation in unrestricted natural language has no limitation in term of expressive and communicability | TRUE Use case diagrams are used to complement such a view through interaction scenarios. | FALSE SADT diagrams capture activities and data in the system | TRUE What is the third phase of RE process? | Requirement specification and documentation Which of the following statements belong to Sequence diagram? | It complements such a view throughinteractionscenarios Which of the following statements belong to Class diagram? | It provide a structural, entity-relationship view of the system Which of the following statements belong to Use case diagram? | It is used for outlining an operational view What does SADT stands for? | Structured Analysis and Design Technique According to IEEE standard template for organizing the RD, which of the followings belong to General Description? | Product perspective, Product functions, User characteristics, General constraints, Assumptions & Dependencies, Apportioning of requirements (B?: External interface requirements) 1/4) Which of the following belongs to Inter-view consistency rules? | (1/4) Every component & interconnection in a problem diagram must be further specified in an ET diagram. 4/4) Which of the following belongs to Inter-view consistency rules | 4/4) Every state in a State Machine diagram must correspond to some value for some attribute or relationship in an ER diagram. What are the generic components in a frame diagram? | A causal component, A lexical component, A biddable component, (B?: A Resultant component ) According to IEEE standard template for organizing the RD, which of the followings belong to Specific Requirements? | Functional requirements, External interface reqs, Performance reqs, Design constraints, Software quality attributes, Other requirements, (B?: User characteristics) 2/4) Which of the following belongs to Inter-view consistency rules | 2/4) Every data in a flow or repository of a DFD diagram must be declared as entity, attribute, or relationship in an ER diagram. 3/4) Which of the following belongs to Inter-view consistency rules | 3/4) Every shared phenomenon in a problem diagram must appear as event in an ET diagram or as entity, attribute, or relationship in an ER diagram. The structure of RD should make it easy to | Trade items back to their rationale, Understand it, Following dependency links, Retrieve and analyze its items, (B?: Understand the software structure) Requirements quality assurance is not a major concern in view of the diversity of potential defects in the requirements document | FALSE Language-based checklist specialize the defect-based ones to the specific construct of the structured, semi-formal or formal specification language used in the requirements document | TRUE Formal Verification should not be used to reveal ambiguous and immeasurable RD items during specification formalization | FALSE The main purpose of requirements validation is to check the adequacy of requirements and assumptions | TRUE What is the first stage of the requirements inspection process? | Inspection planning What is the last stage of the requirements inspection process? | RD consolidation Which of the following statements belong to Free Mode of Individual Reviewing? | The inspector receives no directive on what part of the RD to consider specially or what type of defect to look for Which of the following statements belong to Requirements Validation by Specification Animation? | (All) Its main purpose is to check the adequacy of requirements and assumptions, Its purpose to see whether the system-to-be as specified meets the actual expectations of stakeholder Which of the following statements belong to Checklist Based Mode of Individual Reviewing? | The inspector is given a list of questions and issues to guide the defect search process Which of the following belong to Defect-base checklists? | There are lists of questions structured according to the various types of defects that we can find a requirements document Which of the following belong to Quality-specific checklists? | Such checklists specialize generic and quality-specific checklists to the specific concepts and standard operations found in the domain All of the followings are techniques used for Requirements Quality Assurance except? | Interviews Which of the following belong to phase of requirement inspection process? | Individual reviewing, RD consolidation, Inspection planning, Defect evaluation at review meetings, (B?: Requirement documentation) Which of the following are techniques used for Requirements Quality Assurance? | Queries on a requirement database, Formal Verification, Inspections and Reviews, Animation-base validation,(B?: Interviews) Revisions and variants define a two-dimensional space for defining product evolutions, rather than two separate tracks. | TRUE Requirement changes tend to be forgotten during the evolution | TRUE Variants result from evolution over time, whereas revisions result from evolution across product families | FALSE Which of the following statements belong to variants? | Variants result from changes made to adapt, restrict or extend a master version to multiple classes of users or usage conditions Which of the following statements belong to revisions? | A revision results from changes generally made to correct or improve the current version of a single product. Which is the first stage of change control process? | Changeinitiation Which is the last stage of change control process? | Change consolidation The cost - benefit analysis should control output parameters from those input parameters, according to the weight assigned to traceability management. These output parameters include | (All 3) The people who will be responsible for traceability management, The technique and tools that will be used to reduce the cost of traceability management, The scope, granularity, accuracy, semantic richness and acceptable overhead of traceability management What are the phases of change control process? | Change initiation, Change consolidation, Change evaluation and prioritization, (B?: Change anticipation) Which of the followings belong to the techniques for traceability management? | Cross referencing,Feature diagrams,Traceability matrices,(B?: Traceability management,Traceability model databases,Specification-based traceability management,Traceability link generators,Consistency checkers) Which of the following is not a phase of traceability management? | (None) (B?: Maintain traceability links,Define traceability policy,Establish traceability links,Exploit traceability links) Which of the following is a phase of traceability management? | Define traceability policy, Establish traceability links, Exploit traceability links, Maintain traceability links What is the version type of the following casual factor “Environment change: new class of users or new usage condition“? | Variant What is the version type of the following casual factor "Improved quality feature"? | Revision Which of the following statement about Change Control is not true? | The necessity, feasibility, benefits, impact and cost of the requested changes are evaluated by development team. The finer-grained a goal, the fewer agents required for its satisfaction | TRUE Goals are prescriptive statements of intent the system should satisfy through cooperation of its agent | TRUE Goal satisfaction requires agent cooperation? | TRUE What is the goal? | Prescriptive statement of intent the system should satisfy through cooperation of its agents What are types of goals? | (2 types) Behavioral goals, Soft goals, (B?: Functional goals,Non- functional goals) What are goal categories? | Functional goals, Non- functional goals What is a system agent? | It is an active system component that is responsible for goal satisfaction What are types of Agents? | (3 types) Software,Device,Human, (B?: The domain) Which of the following statements about system agent are true? | (2)We must restrict its behavior to meet its assigned goals, It must be able to monitor/control phenomena involved in assigned goals,(B?: We should focus on its role thather than the individual) GO | print 'Processed 100 total records' Which of the following statements belong to Higher-level goals? | Effective access to state of the art, 50% increase of transportation capacity Which of the following statements belong to Lower-level goals? | Reminder issued by end of loan period if no return, Acceleration command sent every 3 seconds Which of the following statements about behavioral goals are true? | (3)Cannot be satisfied in a clearcut sense (yes or no),Prescribe intended system behaviors declaratively,Used for building operation models to meet them Which of the following statements about the distinction between goals & domain properties is not true? | Only domain properties are required in requirements documentation AND-refinements should also be consistent and maximal (b?l?c AND ?nh?tquánvàt?ida) | FALSE The view that covers the WHY dimension of RE is provided by a goal model? | TRUE A goal model shows contribution links and leaf goal assignments | TRUE Getting complete refinements of behavioral goals is essential for requirements completeness | TRUE Which of the following statements belong to soft goals are true? | (3)Used for comparing options to select preferred,Often take the forms: Maximize / Minimize, Increases /Reduce, Improve,…,Capture preferences among alternative behaviors, (B?: Can be satisfied in clear-cut sense) A goal model includes: | AND – refinement, OR– refinement What are the leaf nodes? | Goals assignable to single system agents Which of the following statements about goal model are true? | (2) Refinement trees visualize satisfaction arguments, Goals are recursively refine-able Which of the following statements about refinements are true? | (2) Getting complete refinements of behavioral goals is essential for requirements completeness, Domain properties are often used for arguing about complete refinements All of the followings are heuristic rules of building goal models except? | Merge responsibilities Which of the following statement about Goal Model are true? | (3) Getting complete refinements of behavioral goals is essential for requirements completeness, Alternative goal refinements yield different system proposals,We can capture potential conflicts among goals,(B?: It is used to model systems conceptual objects ) What “does AND-refinements should be consistent” mean? | Sub goals G1, ..., Gn and domain properties in Domains may not contradict each other What “does AND-refinements should be minimal” mean? | If one sub goal Gj is missing, the parent goal is no longer necessarily satisfied Which of the following statements do not belong to heuristic rules of building goal models? | (2)Merge responsibilities, Analyze the current objectives and problems in the system-to-be Which of the following belong to heuristic rules of building goal models? | (3)Instantiate goal categories, Search for goal-related keywords in elicitation material, Ask how and why question,(B?: Analyze the current objectives and problems in the system-to-be) Risk is the uncertain factor whose occurrence may result in loss of satisfaction of corresponding objective | TRUE Obstacle is the condition on system for violation of corresponding assertion | TRUE The Poor risk management is a major cause of software failure | TRUE Risk analysis cannot be anchored on goal models | FALSE What is a risk? | Uncertain factor whose occurrence may result in loss of satisfaction of corresponding objective Which of the following statements belong to Week mitigations countermeasure? | New goal ensures weaker version of goal when obstructed What does Agent substitution mean? | Consider alternative responsibilities for obstructed goal so as to make obstacle unfeasible What does Goal restoration mean? | Enforce target condition as obstacle occurs What does Goal weakening mean? | Weaken the obstructed goal’s formulation so that it no longer gets obstructed. What does Obstacle prevention mean? | Introduce new goal Avoid [obstacle] AND-refinement of obstacle O should be | Consistent,Complete,Minimal (B?: Disjoint) What are obstacles? | The conditions on system for violation of corresponding assertion Which is a strong mitigation? | A new goal ensures parent of goal when obstructed Which is a weak mitigation? | A new goal ensures weaker version of goal when obstructed According to tautology-based refinement, not (A and B) amounts to | Not A or not B According to tautology-based refinement, not (A if B) amounts to | (A and not B) or (not A and B) Which is the last stage of Risk Management process? | Risk Control Conceptual object can be enumerated in only one system state | FALSE RE is concerned with the problem world only | TRUE Invariant seeming to constrain one object only | FALSE Set of instances of a system-specific concept cannot share similar features | FALSE Which of the following are good class diagrams? | (2-4) diagrams (Initating and Scheduling | On Guard Which of the followings is a good context diagram? | (Diagram1 Meeting date.range & Meeting.Date Which of the following statements about the diagram below are true? (Train [is On] ----On---[Holdtrain]Block) | (2)At any given time, a block may hold at most one|At any given time, a train is on at least one and at most two blocks,(B?: At any given time, a block is on at least one and at most two trains|At any given time, a train may hold at most one block) W...
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  • Spring '12
  • Dung
  • Math, Requirements analysis, following statements

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