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EXAM2_REVIEW.pptx - CHAPTER 6 lecture13 Technology Change...

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CHAPTER 6
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lecture13
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Extensification Intensification Intensification Technology Change Production Growth Mostly About TFP growth (Tech change) Not more inputs (intensification) Not more land (extensification)
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Extensification: defined as the process (or trend) of developing a more extensive production system, i.e., one which utilizes large areas of land, but with minimal inputs and expenditures of capital and labor. Intensification: an increase in agricultural production per unit of inputs (which may be labour, land, time, fertilizer, seed, feed or cash). Production Growth Mostly About TFP growth (Tech change) Not more inputs (intensification) Not more land (extensification)
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I. Biotech (wrap up) Yield gains from Green Revolution exhausted by 1990s. Need Technology Change, but GMOs => Health and Environmental Concerns Lack of Biosafety Systems in LDCs(least developed countries) Lack of Incentives for Private Sector in LDCs (lots of orphan crops) => Few GMOs in LDCs…practically no food GM Crops in LDCs
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Biotechnology I-clicker question Recently introduced GM varieties of corn, soybeans and cotton have raised average yields by A) raising the yield ceiling B) lowering costs of production C) never more than a negligible amount D) all of the above
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GM Crops Post-test… GM (biotech) crops currently in widespread production were developed primarily to A) Raise yields B) Reduce production costs C) Introduce traits appealing to consumer D) All of the above E) None of the above
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I. Wrap Up Bio-Tech Most Corn and Soybeans and Cotton grown in US is GM .
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Argen- tina China India Mexico South Africa Yield 33 19 34 11 65 Revenue 34 23 33 9 65 Pesticide costs -47 -67 -41 -77 -58 Seed costs 530 95 17 165 89 Profit 31 340 69 12 299 Source: Raney (2006) Performance advantage of GM over conventional cotton, percentage Biotech: Production Impacts In general, it’s profits, more than yield Yield rises because cost of getting higher yield falls
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Sum Up Biotech (GMOs) Need Further Growth in TFP Biotech offers mechanism to achieve growth in TFP total factor productivity, refer to portion of output not explained by the amount of inputs used in production ; positive externalities and non- rivalness, tech and econ growth) Biotech product development is attractive to the private sector so ag R&D increasingly profit-based. Biotech presents regulatory issues Biotech not yet developed to serve needs of food producers in developing countries
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Natural Resources (new syllabus section) I. Availability Agricultural Supply Depends on Natural Resource Base: •. Climate Rainfall, Temperature, Seasonality •. Land and Soils Quantity, quality, structure, stability •. Water Surface and ground water RARE TO FIND ALL NATURAL RESOURCES FOR AGRIC.
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Global Land Use (billions of hectares) Region Tot. Land Forested Ag Area U.S. & Canada 1.8 0.6 0.5 Latin Am & Carib 2.0 0.9 0.7 Asia & Pacific 2.0 0.5 1.0 Sub-Sahar Africa 2.4 0.6 1.0 Middle E & N Afr 1.3 0.0 0.5 FSU & E Europe 2.3 0.9 0.6 Western Europe 0.4 0.2 0.2 Oceania 0.8 0.2 0.5 World 12.9 3.9 4.9 .
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