Wilderson Answers.docx - Our approach to the aff creates a...

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Our approach to the aff creates a system of hope that’s better than the alt- positivism fuels progressive engagement and rethinking of power relations, and spurs possibilities for future change Giroux, 2004 [Henry, When Hope is Subversive, Tikkun Vol. 19, No. 6, ] /Wyo-MB Is it possible to imagine hope for justice and humanity after the torture of Iraqi detainees (including some just in their teens) by American soldiers at Abu Ghraib prison? What does hope mean when the United States is virtually unchallenged as it incarcerates unprecedented numbers of young people of color? What does hope teach¶ us at a time in which government lies and deception are exposed on a daily basis in the media and yet appear to have little effect on President Bush’s popular support? What resources and visions does hope offer in a society where greed is considered venerable and profit is the most important measure of personal achievement and social advance? What¶ is the relevance of hope at a time when most attempts to interrupt the operations of an incipient fascism appear to fuel¶ a growing cynicism rather than promote widespread individual and collective acts of resistance ? It is hard not to believe that politics in American life has become corrupt, that progressive social change is a distant memory, or that hope is the last refuge of deluded romantics. Civic engagement seems irrelevant in light of the growing power of multinational corporations to privatize public space and time. We have less time—and fewer civic spaces—for experiencing ourselves as political agents. Market values replace social values. Power has become disconnected from issues of equity, social justice, and civic¶ responsibility . People with the education and means appear more and more willing to retreat into the safe, privatized enclaves of the family, religion, and consumption. Those without the luxury of such choices pay a terrible price in what Zygmunt Bauman, in his book Globalization, has called the “hard currency of human suffering. ” Given these social conditions, some theorists have suggested that democratic politics as a site of contestation, critical exchange, and engagement has come to an end. We¶ must not give up so easily. Democracy has to be struggled¶ over, even in the face of a most appalling crisis of educational opportunity and political agency. Cynicism breeds apathy—not the reverse. The current depressing state of our¶ politics and the bankruptcy of our political language issues¶ a challenge to us to formulate a new language and vision that¶ can reframe questions of agency, ethics, and meaning for a¶ substantive democracy.¶ Crafting such a new political language will require what I call “educated hope.” Hope is the precondition for individual and social struggle . Rather than seeing it as an individual
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