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IVC Psyc 1 Lecture 6 (Thought Language Intelligence).pptx

IVC Psyc 1 Lecture 6 (Thought Language Intelligence).pptx -...

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On Today’s Menu… 1. Introduction to Thought 2. Concepts and Categorization 3. Heuristics and Framing 4. Language and Thinking (Newspeak) 5. Language Acquisition and Development 6. Theories of Intelligence
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Person Psychology! Situatio n Mind Bod y Affec t Cognitio n Behavi or Biolog y Psychology is: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
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Conscious Thought • We have two modes of conscious thought : 1. Propositional Thought : What we “hear” in our mind as we mentally talk to ourselves. 2. Imaginal Thought : Images, usually visual, that we “see” in our mind. • What about unconscious thought ? What are animals’ “thoughts” like? Is our thinking entirely different from animals because we have propositional thoughts ?
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Concepts • A concept is a mental grouping of an entire class of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. Concepts form the basis of broad generalization . –– What if you lacked a concept for domesticated animal? What would you do if you went to someone’s house who had a dog? • Concepts can be concrete , physical or tangible , such as banana or shoe. • Concepts can be abstract , not physical or tangible , such as truth or love.
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Concepts Categorization is the process by which we assign some object to a concept.
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Concepts Categorization is the process by which we assign some object to a concept.
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Concepts fish mamma ls ?
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Concepts Why Are Concepts Important? 1. Cognitive Economy There are too many objects in the world to consider each one individually. Think of how many names you would have to know — insects, trees, colors, etc.
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Concepts Why Are Concepts Important? 2. Inferences — If we know something about the members of a category, once we categorize something, we can make predictions about it and start holding expectations about it.
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Concepts Why Are Concepts Important? 3. Communication — To the degree that we share concepts with others, we can communicate complex ideas via single words (or short phrases). E.g., cold, geek, or evil.
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Conserving Mental Effort We often think in ways that tend to preserve our expectations We pay attention to behaviors relevant to our expectations. We interpret ambiguous events/behaviors in ways that support our expectations. We remember people and events consistent with our expectations.
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Conserving Mental Effort Confirmation Bias People have a tendency to remember evidence that supports their beliefs and ignore evidence that refutes their beliefs. All the data must be included.
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Conserving Mental Effort Self-fulfilling prophecy when an initially inaccurate expectation leads to actions that cause the expectation to come true (1948) Robert Merton Columbia University
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Conserving Mental Effort Pygmalion in the classroom UCR’s Robert Rosenthal, 1985
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Conserving Mental Effort Pygmalion in the classroom UCR’s Robert Rosenthal, 1985
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16 Mindset Mindset Mindsets are beliefs about yourself and your most basic qualities, and whether they are changeable or not.
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