CLEG MIDTERM #2.docx - CLEG MIDTERM#2 School...

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CLEG MIDTERM #2 School Finance/Taxation: - more-on-education-improve-academic-achievement → spending has increased for education/per student and nothing has changed much A progressive tax is a tax that takes a larger percentage from high-income earners than it does from low-income individuals. o Example: federal income tax brackets. In 2016, individuals who have under $9,275 of taxable income pay 10% in income tax, while taxpayers earning more than the benchmark cutoff of $415,050 fall into tax brackets with rates up to 39.6%. Note, however, that deductions, credits, and alternative forms of tax (e.g., capital gains) can result in a regressive federal income tax system. A regressive tax is a tax that takes a larger percentage of income from low-income earners than from high-income earners. It is in opposition with a progressive tax, which takes a larger percentage from high-income earners. A regressive tax is generally a tax that is applied uniformly to all situations, regardless of the payer. o Examples: sales taxes, user fees, property taxes. K-12 Education: Charter schools: - boost-test-scores-nothing-else/D6F7vTwLTqYnBJyeupoODK/story.html → article about charters really not being that successful o Public schools; o Must accept all eligible students, generally by lottery o Often governed by a separate “charter board” or charter authorizing board than the traditional neighborhood schools and magnets; o Some are run by for-profit companies; o Some are run by non-profits (like KIPP); o Some are one-offs. Examples in DC are Yu Ying and Mundo Verde; o Per-pupil funding can be deceptive. Teachers are generally not unionized, so teacher pensions don’t figure in. They often use small swing spaces, so physical plant costs are much lower (particularly compared to costs to maintain aging school buildings). Challenges to Assessing Charter Schools o They have more leeway to expel and funnel students out than traditional schools o Sometimes they funnel students out before test time o Because many are in temporary spaces, there are ADA accessibility issues, which means students with disabilities are steered away o With small staffs, many don’t retain support for disabled students, who are then steered away o Organizing travel to schools outside one’s neighborhood can be difficult for families with two working parents– meaning charters could be getting relatively higher-resourced or more education-focused families. o Bottom line: it’s hard to know whether charters and traditional schools are really educating the same groups, and there’s reason to believe they aren’t.
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