MGT361_OB_Motivation_Theories_Part_II.pptx

MGT361_OB_Motivation_Theories_Part_II.pptx - Motivation...

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Motivation Part II Integrating Multiple Perspectives
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Learning-Based Perspectives… Reinforcement Theory and Learning Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Behavior is a function of its consequences Reinforcement is the consequence of behavior Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement A reward or other desirable consequence that a person receives after exhibiting behavior Negative reinforcement (avoidance) The opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting compliant or positive behavior Extinction Decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior Punishment An unpleasant or aversive consequence that results from behavior
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Vroom’s expectancy theory Expectancy- effort to performance expectancy- Belief that effort leads to a specific level of performance. Q1. Will my effort increase my performance? Instrumentality- performance to outcome expectancy - A performance outcome perception. Q2. Will my performance lead to a desired outcome? Valence - The value of a reward or outcome. Q3. Is the outcome valuable? Outcomes - refer to different consequences that are contingent on performance Expectancy Effort Performance Outcomes Instrumentality Valence
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Expectancy theory (continued) The Expectancy Theory of Motivation (Vroom) Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it Key Components Effort-to-performance expectancy (0 to 1) The perceived probability that effort will lead to adequate performance Performance-to-outcome instrumentality (0 to 1) The perceived probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes Outcomes Anything that results from performing a behavior Valence (-1 to 1) The degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness (value) that a particular outcome has for a person
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Managerial techniques: To increase expectancy Provide training & development, mentoring, proper resources; a friendly collaborative environment.
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