ReviewForFinal-KEY.docx - CHEMISTRY 102B REVIEW FOR FINAL...

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CHEMISTRY 102B – REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM Spring 2011 Chapters 12-15 Chapter 12: Solutions: Key Terms & Equations Know types of solutions – solids, liquids, gases, aqueous Know what solubility means Recall intermolecular forces & how they impact solubility Know the term miscible, and the expression “like dissolves like” Know the role entropy plays in solution formation Know the energetics of solution formation: H soln = H solute + H solvent + H mix + + - • so, the overall sign of H soln depends on the magnitude of the individual terms also, H hydration = H solvent + H mix for aqueous solutions Know the terms: unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated Know the temperature dependence of solubility Know how pressure & temperature changes affect the solubility of gases Henry’s Law: S gas = k H P gas (where S will be in M, k H = Henry’s constant (M/atm) – specific to the gas solute) Know the difference between the terms dilute & concentrated Know the Solution Concentration Terms: know how to calculate each term & how to convert between the terms Colligative Properties: Vapor Pressure Lowering Raoult’s Law: P solution = X solvent solvent vapor pressure lowering, itself is: P = P˚ solvent - P solution or, P = X solute P ˚ solvent X solute refers to the mole fraction of the solute in SOLUTION, not in the gas Phase know Raoult’s Law for ideal solutions & how it deviates for non-ideal solutions Boiling Point Elevation T b = m x K b , where K b is the boiling point elevation constant T b, solution = T˚ b + T b Freezing Point Depression T f = m x K f , where K f is the freezing point depression constant
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CHEMISTRY 102B – REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM Spring 2011 T f, solution = T˚ f - T f Osmotic Pressure: =MRT, where M = molarity know what osmosis means & use the correct value of R van’t Hoff Factor: i; how do you determine the value? know that each of the equations above are multiplied by i when a strong electrolyte is dissolved Chapter 13: Kinetics: Key Terms & Equations Rates of Reactions – initial rates, average rates, instantaneous rates The integrated rate laws! And Half-lives!!! know for first order, second order, and zero-order know how to use the equations in calculations, the importance of the graphs (above), and implications of the rate constant Arrhenius Equation: relation between rate constant & temperature • know Activation energy, frequency factor, exponential factor k Ae E a RT • know the 2-point form of the Arrhenius equation ln k 2 k 1 E a R ( 1 T 1 1 T 2 ) Understand the Collision Model & how it explains the orientation factor & the collision frequency Reaction Mechanisms: know how to derive & how they match up with rate law expressions understand terms like elementary steps (unimolecular, bimolecular, etc.) Know how to read an energy diagram
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CHEMISTRY 102B – REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM Spring 2011 Know how a catalyst affects the reaction rate!
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