BSCI100_notes.doc - CH 13 How Populations Evolve Evolution...

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CH 13: How Populations Evolve Evolution is the unifying principle of modern biology Evolution of the Theory Aristotle – ‘fixed’ species – species were created and they didn’t change Anaximander – more complex living things arose from simpler ones, they were created and changed over time (Created – gods created these species) “Young Earth” (church doctrine) – the 6,000-year limit on the age of the planet. Special and separate creation with a hierarchy of living things. Gods at top and then man right below them. “Ancient Earth” – Georges Buffon 1707-1788. Said that earth is much more than 6,000 years old, fossil records= ancient animals that resemble modern animals, and that environment acted to change species Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) – “Father of Taxonomy” devised hierarchical system of organization of living things based on shared characteristics and the Latin naming system for species Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829) – living things change in response to their environment (adaptation). Acquired traits – new traits arise or disappear from repeated use/disuse Charles Darwin Education: studied medicine, withdrew to study theology and botany Voyage of the Beagle – age 22 o Got his interest in species o Realized that earth was very old and constantly changing Alfred Wallace completes similar work from his studies on Indonesia and published around the same time Influences o Thomas Malthus (1766- 1834) – political economist An essay on the principle of population – human populations often grow faster than can be supported – political unrest and struggle for survival o Charles Lyell (1830) – Principles of Geology Uniformitarianism – geological uplift, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes Earth is very old, long time for islands to form and mountains o Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) – physician, botanist, philosopher - grandfather Common ancestors – all living things are descended from ancestral species Sexual selection – the most fit males are the ones that females choose to reproduce with o Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848) father, physician and member of the royal society (a scientific society) Didn’t want to upset church doctrines, and knew that his work would be controversial
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The Theory of Evolution by means of Natural Selection What does evolution mean today? o Evolution is the genetic changes in a species over time o Microevolution – the changes in the allele frequencies of a gene in a population over successive generations o Macroevolution – the heritable changes that have occurred in a species over the course of earth’s history Descent with Modification o Existing species come from common ancestors o Modification of traits due to interaction with environment (adaptation) as species moved to different parts of the world Natural Selection o The differential success in survival and reproduction of individuals in a population that differ in some heritable trait due to interaction with environment o 1. Population size – populations can become very large, but usually are
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