Rev2.docx - Ngan Lam PCB 3023 Cell Biology ENERGY 1 In the...

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Ngan Lam PCB 3023: Cell Biology ENERGY 1. In the 1940s the De Beers Mines Company of South Africa coined the slogan “A diamond is forever”. Later, during an advertising campaign to increase diamond sales, the company linked it to being the symbol of “everlasting love and value”. The company continues to use this slogan over fifty years later. Over time, a reaction occurs where the highly ordered molecular structure of diamond is converted to a less ordered and more stable allotrope called graphite, which invalidates the company’s slogan according to the second law of thermodynamics. Using the reaction information provided answer the following questions. A) Which allotrope has higher entropy, diamond or graphite? Why? Graphite has higher entropy, because graphite has delocalized electrons, diamond does not, so more disorder. B) Will the reaction occur spontaneously or non-spontaneously, if so how do you know? Is it an exergonic or endergonic reaction? The reaction occurs spontaneously, because the process that occurs very slowly, taking millions of years. This is exergonic reaction C) Is the G of the reaction positive, negative or zero? The G of the reaction is negative 2. List three ways that you experience the first law of thermodynamics in your everyday life. Hold a piece of ice in your hand until it melts Consider the evaporation of sweat from your body. One pool ball hits another, transferring kinetic energy and making the second ball move. ENZYMES
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3. HMG-CoA reductase is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of cholesterol. Statins are a class of drugs that were specifically designed to bind to the active site of HMG-CoA reductase, which prevent cholesterol synthesis resulting in lower levels in the blood. Based on this description statin drugs act as reductase inhibitors. 4. Explain why the maximum velocity of a reaction decreases if an allosteric inhibitor is added, but remains unchanged if a competitive inhibitor is added. What about the Michaelis constant, why is it only affected by competitive inhibitors?
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