BIOL
PROPSAL 7-12MAR- Dec 9th.docx

PROPSAL 7-12MAR- Dec 9th.docx - The impact of Night Work on...

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The impact of Night Work on Anxiety, Depression and Fatigue among Jordanian Nurses Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Recently, it has been observed that shift work is linked with different mental disorders, which may include anxiety, insomnia, depression and fatigue (Oyane et. Al., 2013). According to Scott and colleagues, it has been reported that night work has a major impact of developing mental disorders, especially among women (Oyane et al., 2013). On the other hand, Bara et al., (2009) showed that men and women involved in shift work have an equal opportunity of developing depressive disorders. Moreover, Oyane et al., (2013) found that nurses who have an experience of 5 years or more within a night shift work have a 6-fold higher risk of developing depressive disorders. However, nurses with an experience of less than 5 years in night work have a lower chance of developing mental disorders. The development of mental disorders is particularly observed among shift workers due to disrupted sleep schedule. Furthermore, shift workers go to sleep when their diurnal rhythm enhances signals of wakefulness, which could cause chronic insomnia (Oyane et al., 2013). As the nurses’ working environment is considered to be of high pressure, shift work can also play a significant factor in causing abnormal circadian rhythms to nurses. Thereby, this could contribute to nurses’ performance and the quality of care being delivered to the patients. Different researches have illustrated that anxiety is linked with the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (Shen et al., 2016). Licht et al. (2009) reported that anxiety is responsible for decrease in Heart Rate Variability. One of the causes for this association
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is a dysregulation of the autonomic control of the heart.This association has been linked tocardiovascular disease mortality. Furthermore, anxiety and depression are also associated with a higher risk of cardiac death (Licht et al., 2009). Statistical data reported by Labour statistics showed that approximately 2.5 % of the US workforces have rotating shifts, and more than 26 % of shift workers have a higher chance of developing Shift Work Disorder (SWD). This disorder is characterized with severe sleep disturbance during sleep period or high level of sleepiness throughout the wake period. In addition, shift workers are more likely to have poor mental health status and a relatively lower quality of life. The disruption of sleep patterns could contribute to circadian misalignment. Indeed, shift workers may face sleep difficulties that would prevent them to adjust to shift work which is associated with chronic sleep disturbances. The lack of sleep that results from the shift work disorder might result in fatigue, depression and anxiety symptoms, which could influence the nurses’ performance negatively.
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