raghad.pdf - 454885 NCPXXX10.1177/ ion in Clinical...

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Nutrition in Clinical Practice Volume 27 Number 5 October 2012 613-623 © 2012 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition DOI: 10.1177/0884533612454885 http://ncp.sagepub.com hosted at http://online.sagepub.com Invited Review Global and Worldwide Cancer Incidence and Mortality According to GLOBOCAN, ~600,000 deaths worldwide occur each year from colorectal cancer, making colorectal cancer the fourth cause of cancer deaths globally. 1 For both incidence and mortality, men experience a higher burden of colorectal cancer than do women. Globally, cancer of the col- orectum is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common in women. The incidence and mortality rates differ by as much as 10-fold with respect to geographic region and country, wherein more highly developed countries report the highest number of cases. The lowest age-adjusted incidence estimates are reported in regions of central Africa (eg, ~5.5/100,000 in the Central Republic of Africa and the Sudan) and south-central Asia (eg, ~4.3/100,000 in India). Central and South America report intermediate estimates (10- 20/100,000), whereas Argentina and Uruguay approach esti- mates similar to those in many regions of the United States (30s/100,000). Higher incidence estimates come from western regions of Europe (~36-45/100,000) and Australia/New Zealand (~45/100,000). However, Eastern European countries continue to report the highest incidence, with the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary reporting the highest rates in the world (~50-60/100,000). In the United States, approximately 1 in 20 people will experience a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The 5-year relative survival rate for all stages of the disease is estimated at 64.3% from data derived between 2002 and 2008 from 18 of the con- tributing Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer Registries. 2 Furthermore, as summarized in Table 1, incidence and mortality in the United States differ significantly by age, sex, and race. 3 In recent years, the success of colorectal screening in the United States, which includes fecal occult blood testing and endoscopy procedures (sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy), has resulted in earlier disease detection that has led to a significant ongoing reduction in both the incidence of, and mortality from, colorectal carcinoma. 4,5 The Natural History of Colorectal Cancer and Opportunities for Prevention The development of a model for the pathobiology of colorectal carcinogenesis, as a multistage process occurring over decades (illustrated in Figure 1), largely accounts for the success achieved with screening and early detection. Colorectal tumors 454885 NCP XX X 10.1177/0884533612454885Nutrit ion in Clinical PracticeDiet and Nutrient Factors in Colorectal Cancer Risk / Vargas and Thompson 2012 From the 1 Department of Nutritional Sciences and 2 Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, Arizona.
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