Ch 16 Notes.docx - Ch 16 Sex Gender and Personality Sex...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ch 16: Sex, Gender, and Personality - Sex Differences: average differences between women and men in personality or behaviour - Gender: social interpretations of what it means to be a man or a women (can change over time) - Gender Stereotypes : beliefs about how men and women differ or are supposed to differ The Science and Politics of Studying Sex and Gender - Feminist psychologist Alice Eagly, argues sex differences exist and should not be ignored - Janet Hyde says sex differences exaggerated, much overlap on most personality traits, differences minimal - HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF SEX DIFFERENCES o The Psychology of Sex Differences Women slightly better than men at verbal ability Men slightly better than women in mathematical ability/spatial ability In terms of personality, concluded that only sex difference is men are more aggressive o Meta-analysis now used to study sex differences, a statistical method for summarizing the findings of large numbers of individual studies. o Effect size: how large the difference actually is (THE D-STATISTIC) - CALCULATION OF EFFECT SIZE: HOW LARGE ARE THE SEX DIFFERENCES? o The d statistic is used to express a difference in standard deviation units o A d of 0.5 means that the average difference between two groups is half a SD o When comparing men to women, positive d scores mean that men score higher than women o Negative d scores mean that women score higher than men o Spatial rotation ability sex difference quite large, such as throwing a spear so it hits animal o Even large effect sizes for average sex differences do not necessarily have implications for any particular individual - MINIMALISTS AND MAXIMALISTS o Minimalist: those who describe sex differences as small and inconsequential Most findings of sex differences show small magnitudes of effect Whatever differences that exist do not have much practical importance for behaviour o Maximalist: magnitudes of sex differences is comparable to that of many other effects in psych and should not be trivialized. Some sex differences are small in magnitude, others are large, many are moderate Even small sex differences can have large importance SEX DIFFERENCES IN PERSONALITY - TEMPERMENT IN CHILDREN o Inhibitory control shows the largest sex difference, d = -0.41, which is moderate This refers to the ability to control inappropriate responses or behaviours. o Perceptual sensitivity also showed a sex difference favouring girls This is the ability to detect subtle stimuli from the environment o Surgency : a cluster including approach behaviour, high activity, and impulsivity show a sex difference (d = 0.38) -> perhaps high surgency and low inhibitory control can account for why boys tend to get into more disciplinary difficulties early in their lives. May also account for physical aggressiveness (d = 0.60) o Negative affectivity: anger, difficulty, distress, sadness -> boys and girls show virtually NO difference Only minor exception is subcomponent of fearfulness (d = -0.12) o
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern