PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD.docx

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD.docx - PHYSICAL...

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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD, AGES 6 TO 11 Children grow about 5 to 7 cm (2 to 3 inches) and gain about 2 to 4 kg (4½ to 9 pounds) each year between ages 6 and 11. Girls retain somewhat more fatty tissue than boys, a characteristic that will persist through adulthood. The recommended weights for the average 10-year-old are 31 kg (68 pounds) for boys and 32 kg (71 pounds) for girls. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Grey matter in the parietal lobes, which deal with spatial understanding, reaches its maximum volume, on average, at about age 10 in girls and 11½ in boys. In the frontal lobes, which handle higher-order functions such as thinking, and which may be involved with differences in IQ, grey matter peaks at age 11 in girls and age 12 in boys. In the temporal lobes, which help with language, grey matter peaks at about age 16 in both girls and boys. Beneath the cortex, grey matter volume in the caudate—a part of the basal ganglia, which are involved in control of movement and muscle tone and in mediating higher cognitive functions, attention, and emotional states—peaks at age 7½ in girls and age 10 in boys. White matter connections thicken and myelinate, beginning with the frontal lobes and moving toward the rear of the brain. Between ages 6 and 13, striking growth takes place in connections between the temporal and parietal lobes. White matter growth may not begin to drop off until well into adulthood. Another way neuroscientists measure brain development is by changes in the thickness of the cortex. Researchers have observed cortical thickening between ages 5 and 11 in regions of the temporal and frontal lobes. At the same time, thinning occurs in the rear portion of the frontal and parietal cortex in the brain's left hemisphere. This change correlates with improved performance on the vocabulary portion of an intelligence test. SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Many children with SDB may undergo the surgical removal of their adenoids and tonsils—a treatment that has been found to improve neurobehavioural deficits and improve quality of life. Children who are not candidates for surgery may benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in which an electronic device keeps airways open via air pressure delivered through a nasal mask. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD AG E SELECTED BEHAVIOUR 6 BOYS SUPERIOR IN FORCEFUL, LESS COMPLEX ACTS WHILE GIRLS IN MOVEMENT ACCURACY SKIPPING IS POSSIBLE CAN THROW WITH PROPER WEIGHT SHIFT AND STEP 7 ONE-FOOTED BALANCING WITHOUR LOOKING CAN WALK 5-CENTIMETRE-WIDE BALANCE BEAMS CAN HOP AND JUMP ACCURATELY INTO SMALL SQUARES CAN EXECUTE ACCURATE JUMPING JACKS 8 HAVE 5.4-KILOGRAM PRESSURE GRIP STRENGTH NUMBER OF GAMES PLAYED IN GREATEST AT THIS AGE CAN ENGAGE IN ALTERNATE RHYMIC HOPPING GIRLS CAN THROW A SMALL BALL 12 METRES 9 BOYS CAN THROW A SMALL BALL 21 METRES
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BOYS CAN RUN 5 METRES A SECOND 10 GIRLS CAN RUN 5 METRES A SECOND CAN JUDGE AND INTERCEPT PATHWAYS OF SMALL BALLS THROWN AT A DISTANCE 11 STANDING BROAD JUMP OF 1.5 METRES IS POSSIBLE FOR BOYS, AND 15 CENTIMETRES LESS FOR GIRLS
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