Midterm Lectures 1-5.docx - INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL...

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INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM REVIEW Lecture 1 Review Questions/Notes 1. What is social psychology? (3) Social psychology looks at how the presence of others affects how we think, feel, and behave. It is essentially the study of social processes. Social situations can be real or imagined. 2. What is the goal of social psychology? (1) The goal of social psychology is to explain and predict behaviour. 3. What are four sample social psychology questions? (2) How do people explain the behaviour of others? How do people explain their own behaviour? How do people explain social situations? How are people influenced by the presence of others? 4. Compare social psychology to personality psychology and sociology? (3) Social psychology is how the presence of others affect how we think, feel, and behave. Personality psychology is the study of the individual differences in people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Sociology is the study of the behaviour of communities and groups, not individuals. 5. Explain generally what the power of the situation is, and an example of it. (2) Basically situations can determine behaviour, despite individual differences. For example, the Nazi soldiers were not unusual, but rather normal people who found themselves stuck in weird situations. 6. Explain (a) the experimental set-up and (b) the results of the Milgram Study of Obedience. (8) (a) It was described as the study of learning. Participants had to provide a shock to people who gave the wrong answers, the person being shocked was the confederate. The shock level was increased for each wrong answer and ranged between 15 mV to 450 mV. During the experiment, the confederate screams and asks to stop the experiment, and later stops making sound, indicating they might be dead. However, the experimenter instructs the participants to continue with the experiment. (b) About 62.5% of participants completed with the experiment despite being asked to stop, whereas it was predicted that only 1% would complete the experiment. Participants were of different ages and social classes, yet there were the same effects among men and women. Participants did not intend to harm anyone, but they were pressured to do it. 7. Explain the Seminarians as Samaritans experiment, include the hypothesis, research method, results, and conclusion. (4) The hypothesis is that the likelihood of helping someone depends on the situation, like being in a hurry. The research method: Seminary student participants were told to deliver a talk on the Good Samaritan, some were told they were in a rush and others were told to take their time, participants passed by a victim in need of help. The results were that while in a rush, only 10% of people helped the victim, whereas while not in a rush, 60% of people helped the victim. The conclusion was that factors like being in a hurry can override people’s helpful tendencies.
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