Exam II Study Guide_HPhys_WTR_18.docx

Exam II Study Guide_HPhys_WTR_18.docx - TBIOL 302 Human...

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TBIOL 302: Human Physiology Winter 2018 Exam II Study Guide Chapter 11: Autonomic Nervous System •Recall the major autonomic functions controlled by the brainstem (lecture 8, slides 4 and 6). Control smooth and cardiac muscle, many glands, lymphoid and some adipose tissue. Mostly involuntary. Sympathetic branch fight or flight Parasympathetic branch is rest or digest. Urinary bladder control Secondary respiratory center Blood pressure control Respiratory center •Match anatomical, neurochemical and physiological details as belonging to either sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways (lecture 8, slides 8, 10-12, 15). Sympathetic: Norepinephrine with alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. Originate from thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord. Beta 1 is epinephrine and norepinephrine. Beta 2 is only epinephrine. Parasympathetic: Acetylcholine with muscarinic receptors. Originate from brain stem and sacral region of spinal cord. Both begin with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine. •Recall the specific physiological affect that sympathetic and parasympathetic activation has on target organs (lecture 8, slide 10). Look at chart. •Briefly describe the anatomical and physiological reasons that make the adrenal medulla a modified ‘ganglion’ within the sympathetic branch (lecture 8, slides 13-14). Considered a modified ‘ganglion’ because: Neuroendocrine tissue in medulla is directly innervated by preganglionic neurons from spinal cord. Chromaffin cells (neuroendocrine cells) in medulla secrete epinephrine in response to stimulation. Release epinephrine directly into blood stream. Chapter 12: Skeletal Muscle •Label skeletal muscle and sarcomere anatomy, and recall origin and insertion sites (lecture 9, slides 3 – 6). Origin site: close to trunk Insertion: Distal •Describe in detail how skeletal muscles contract using the sliding filament model (lecture 9, slides 6 – 11 and in-class exercise). Myosin and actin slide over one another via this theory. 1. ATP is split when myosin head is unattached. 2. ADP+P are bound to myosin as myosin head attaches to actin. 3. Upon ADP+P release, power stroke occurs; head bends and pulls actin. 4. Binding of fresh ATP causes myosin head to return to resting position. 1. Calcium is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum 2. Calcium binds to troponin.
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3. Troponin—Ca 2+ complex pulls tropomyosin away, exposing myosin-binding sites. 4. Myosin binds to actin and ATP is used to pull actin toward center of sarcomere. •Describe in detail how motor neuron action potentials trigger muscle contraction (lecture 10, slides 4 - 8). Action potential: 1. Action potential arrives; releases ACh. 2. ACh binds to ACh receptors. 3. Action potentials propagate across plasma membrane and into muscle cells via T Tubules and Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
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