Final Exam Study Guide_HPhys_WTR_18.docx

Final Exam Study Guide_HPhys_WTR_18.docx - TBIOL 302 Human...

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TBIOL 302: Human Physiology Winter 2018 Final Exam Study Guide Format : 40 Multiple Choice, 6 Diagram/Labeling/Short Answer, 1 Essay Chapter 19: Kidneys I & II (Lectures 18 and 19) Nahmani: Kidneys I Lecture Recall the major functions of the kidneys (slides 6-7). o Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. o Regulation of osmolarity  o Maintenance of ion balance  o Homeostatic regulation of pH o Excretion of wastes o Production of hormones – homeostatic regulation of fluid volume and  osmolarity. Label the urinary system and kidney anatomy (slides 8-10). o
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o Recall the four processes of the kidney and where they take place within the nephron  (slides 11-19) . o Filtration: from blood into the lumen of the nephron. o Reabsorption: from the filtrate in the lumen of the tubule back into the blood. o Secretion: from blood into lumen of tubule. o Excretion: from lumen to out of the body. Calculate the amount of solute filtered, secreted or excreted by the nephron if given the  other variables (19-22). o Amount filtered – amount reabsorbed + amount secreted = amount of solute  excreted.  Calculate net filtration pressure in the glomerulus and recognize how opposing forces are  generated (25-27). o Net filtration pressure = hydrostatic pressure (BP) – colloid osmotic pressure  (proteins in plasma) – fluid pressure (build up in glomerulus).  Delgado Lecture: Kidneys II Briefly describe how the myogenic response and tubuloglomerular feedback function to  regulate GFR (slides 21-23). o Myogenic response: Occurs in the afferent arteriole which supplies the glomerulus.  ‘Intrinsic’ ability of vascular smooth muscle to respond to pressure changes.  BP increases, smooth muscle cells (wall of arteriole) stretch afferent  arteriole open, Na+ influx, depolarization triggers Ca2+-gated channel  opening, smooth muscle cells contract (resist pressure), little change in flow. BP drops, smooth muscle cells relax (less resistance), continues even blood flow Autoregulation is lost when BP falls below 80 mmHg o Tubuloglomerular feedback: Paracrine control, local control of GFR by macula  densa cells. Increased GFR, increased NaCl sensing by macula densa, macula densa  release hormones, neighboring afferent arteriole constrict. 
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GFR increases, flow through tubule increases, flow past macula  densa increases, paracrine from macula densa to afferent arteriole,  afferent arteriole constricts, resistance in afferent arteriole increases,  hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus decreases, GFR decreases.
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