5 Respiratory System Review GuidemwV3.docx

5 Respiratory System Review GuidemwV3.docx - Respiratory...

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Respiratory System Review Guide Name: Finella Chiang Directions: You will learn best if you WRITE OUT THE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON SEPARATE SHEETS OF PAPER!!! 1. List AND describe the basic functions of the respiratory system. a. Gas exchange between air/blood b. Moving air to/from exchange surfaces of lungs c. Protecting surfaces d. Dehydration, temp, changes pathogen invasion e. Facilitating olfaction 2. How do the respiratory zone and conducting zone differ? a. Respiratory zone : Actual site of gas exchange, includes smallest, most delicate bronchioles and alveoli b. Conduction zone : Begins at nasal cavity & extends through pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and larger bronchioles. Cleanse, humidify and warm incoming air 3. Compare and contrast the structures of the upper and the lower respiratory systems. a. Upper: Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx b. Lower: Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli of lungs 4. What is the significance of the hilum of the lung? How about the cardiac notch? a. Hilum: groove that allows the passage of the primary bronchi, pulmonary vessels, nerves and lymphatics b. Cardiac notch: allows for the heart to rest in the thoracic cavity in next to the lungs 5. Explain the importance of the nasal conchae and nasal meatuses. a. Nasal Conchae : Surface area b. Nasal Meatuses : Creates turbulence 6. List AND describe the respiratory defense system components a. Lysozyme : Secreted to trap and kill bacteria b. Defensins : Anti-microbial protein secreted to kill microbes c. Nerve Endings : Irritating particles trigger sneeze to blow irritants out d. Cilia : Sweep mucus with trapped debris toward pharynx to be swallowed e. Mucocilliary escalator : Move mucus upward toward pharynx 7. List AND describe the four processes of the respiratory system, making sure to compare and contrast internal and external respiration. a. Pulmonary ventilation : movement into and out of the lungs b. External respiration : between the lungs and the blood c. Internal respiration : between the blood and the cells d. Transport of respiratory gases : between the lungs and the cells 8. What is pulmonary ventilation? a. Movement of air in and out of the lungs, no gas exchange
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9. Describe the mechanism by which the nose warms and humidifies air. a. Air in : swirls around, picks up heat and evaporated water from nasal mucus, protects delicate respiratory surfaces from being effected b. Air out : warmer air “warms” nasal mucus, and water condenses back into the mucus 10.Describe the locations AND function(s) of the sinuses. a. Paranasal, Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid and Maxillary : lighten skull, warm and moisten air i. When passages connecting sinuses and nasal cavity are blocked with mucus, the air is absorbed by the mucosa causing a partial vacuum= sinus headache 11.What is the difference between the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx?
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