BIO 3250 Final Paper.docx - VALDOSTA STATE UNIVERSITY...

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VALDOSTA STATE UNIVERSITY Indirect effects of vines in relation to Spanish moss and live oak Sierra M Adams [email protected] 1 2 3 4
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Abstract Interactions can be determined by comparing relationships among species. We studied the possible effects of vines relative to Spanish moss coverage on its host in southern Georgia. There was little to no correlation vines when compared to Spanish moss coverage but there was a high significance in Northing trees in relevance to Spanish moss coverage. Keywords Species interaction, epiphyte, liana, rank, coverage 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
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Introduction Plant–plant interactions can affect the growth and productivity of individual plants and have effects on the overall plant communities. In plant–plant interactions there can be competition (negative interaction) or facilitation (positive interaction) that occurs within a plant community (Luque and Pugnaire 2001). Positive interactions can be defined as non-consumer interactions with two or more species where one of the species involved is positively affected. Plant–plant interactions are important forces structuring plant communities, and the balance between competition and facilitation responds to variation in environmental stress and disturbance ( Bertness and Callaway 1994). Within the positive and negative interactions occurring between the plants, there are different affects the plants can have with each other such as direct, indirect, and diffuse interactions. Direct interactions occur between two species meaning what species A does has an effect on species B. Diffuse interactions are the actions of many different species acting on one species all at the same time (Callaway et al. 2002); for example, species A-E all effecting species F at once. Indirect interactions require a third species as a mediator to arise. In other words, if species A, B, and C form a competitive “web” with A as the best competitor and C as the worst, species A may indirectly facilitate species C by suppressing species B (Callaway et al. 2001). Depending on the strength of the interaction, one species can be more effected than the other. In the United States, Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides ) is found in Virginia west to central Texas along the coast. This dependent (relies on a host species) vascular epiphyte is mostly found in moist well illuminated areas such as pine forest but they are also found in shaded areas such as the lower branches of oak trees. Though results have shown that high light conditions increase its growth, it does not play a big part in host preference (Garth 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
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1964) the water capacity of the bark of the host tree maybe important (Garth 1964; Schlesinger and Marks 1977; Callaway et al. 2002). Quercus virginiana (live oak) is native to the southeastern United States. This species grows in temperate hardwood forests that have mesic or
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