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Chapter 6 Social and Personality Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.doc

Chapter 6 Social and Personality Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.doc

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Chapter 6: Social and Personality Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood The Growing Child by Denise Boyd & Helen Bee 1. Throughout development, when do parents and children have the most physical closeness? In the oral stage, from birth to age 1. The wearing process should be managed in such a way that the infant’s need to suck is neither frustrated nor overgratified. 2. How did Erikson’s view of the first year of life build upon Freud’s? What did Erikson term it? He proposed that the first year is a period during which the infant learns to trust the world around him or becomes cynical about the social environment’s ability to meet his needs – the trust versus mistrust stage. 3. Describe the study by Harlow & Zimmerman (1959). Does it support Freud’s or Erikson’s views more? Infant monkeys were separated from their mothers at birth. The experimenters placed two different kinds of “surrogate” mothers in their cage. The monkeys received all their feedings from a wire mother with a bottle attached, and the other was covered with soft terrycloth. Researchers found that the monkeys approached the wire mother only when hungry and most of the time, they cuddled against the cloth mother, and running to it when frightened or stressed. This supports Erikson’s view of infant’s development. 4. What is attachment theory? What scientific perspective does this come from? Attachment theory is the view that infants are biologically predisposed to form emotional bonds with caregivers and that the characteristics of those bonds shape later social and personality development. Ethological perspective. 5. Describe the “internal models” that John Bowlby says infants and young children develop. Infants create different internal models of their relationships with parents and other key adults. 6. What is synchrony? What are some examples of how infants and parents establish synchrony? Synchrony is a mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors shared by a parent and child. A father’s bond with an infant seems to depend more on the development of synchrony than on contact immediately after birth. 7. Which matters more for the development of an attachment relationship, contact after birth or synchrony?
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Research clearly indicates that babies benefits tremendously when both kinds of interaction are available to them. 8. Compared to mothers, how do fathers tend to interact with their infants? Fathers spend more time playing with the baby, with more physical roughhousing; mothers spend more time in routine caregiving and talking to and smile at the baby more. 9. Describe Bowlby’s four phases of establishing attachment including when they occur. Phase 1: Nonfocused orienting and signaling – birth to 3 months Phase 2: Focus on one or more figures – 3 to 6 months Phase 3: Secure base behavior – 6 to 24 months Phase 4: Internal model – 24 months and beyond 10.Once a clear primary attachment appears in Phase 3, what else also appears? For how long?
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