Chapter 8 Cognitive Development in Early Childhood.doc

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Chapter 8: Cognitive Development in Early Childhood The Growing Child by Denise Boyd & Helen Bee 1. Describe the different forms of play in the preschool period and when they appear. Constructive play – By age 2 or so, children use objects to build or construct things. First pretend play – Between 15 and 21 months, the recipient of the pretend action becomes another person or a doll. Substitute pretend play – Between 2 and 3 years of age, children begin to use objects to stand for something altogether different. Sociodramatic play – Between 3 and 4 years of age, a kind of shared pretending. Rule-governed play – Around the fifth birthday, most children begin to prefer rule- governed pretending. 2. When does symbolism emerge? Between the ages of 18 and 24 months. 3. Describe how children use figurative schemes in their pretend play. In one kind of pretend play, children relate the characteristics of objects in the environment to figurative schemes for objects that are stored in their memories. 4. According to Piaget, what is egocentrism? How did he assess for it? One of several difficulties that arise from young children’s lack of completed operative from their own point of view. 5. What is centration? How does it lead to animism? A young child’s tendency to think of the world in terms of one variable at a time. The preoperational thinker isn’t capable of thinking of objects in terms of both their motion and their capacity for self-movements. 6. What is conservation? How did Piaget assess for it? The understanding that matter can change in appearance without changing in quantity. 7. How does the principle of transductive logic possibly lead to bad thoughts in children with divorcing parents? With a far-reach consequence. The child starts to think the divorce is his or her own fault. 8. What evidence suggests children are not completely egocentric at ages younger than Piaget thought? Children as young as 2 and 3 appear to have at lease some ability to understand that another person sees things or experiences things differently than they do.
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9. Describe Flavell’s study on appearance and reality. The experimenter shows the child a sponge that has been painted to look like a rock. 3-year-olds will say that the object looks like a sponge and is a sponge or that it looks like a rock and is a rock. 4- and 5-year-olds can distinguish between appearance and reality; realizing that the item looks like a rock but is a sponge. The older children understand that the same object can be represented differently, depending on the point of view. 10.What is theory of mind?
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