Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth.doc

Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth.doc - Chapter 3...

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Chapter 3: Prenatal Development and Birth The Growing Child by Denise Boyd & Helen Bee 1. Ordinarily, how many eggs does a woman produce each month? One egg cell 2. How many sperm does a male create when he orgasms? Millions 3. How do sperm and ova differ in chromosomes from all the other cells in the human body? They contain 23 single unpaired chromosomes; 4. What is a zygote? Zygote is a single cell created when sperm and ovum unite. 5. How do genes relate to chromosomes? Chromosomes are made by segments called genes. 6. Genetically, how is sex determined? Zygotes that’s contain two X chromosomes develop into females, and those that contain one X and one Y chromosome develop in male. 7. Which determines the sex of the child, the sperm or the ovum? The sperm. 8. Describe how chromosomal differences in sex (i.e., XX vs. XY) become physical differences. The development of the gonads. Testes in males and ovaries in females. 9. Describe congenital adrenal hyperplasia. When a female embryos that are exposed to androgens, via either medications that the mother is taking or a genetic disorder its called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. 10.Describe what dizygotic and monozygotic twins represent genetically. Which occur more frequently? Dizygotic twins are fraternal twins, a result from 2 eggs. Monozygotic twins are identical twins, a result of 1 egg that separated into to parts. 11.How much has the prevalence of twins increased in the last 30 years? Why? It has increased about 66% because of the increase of women giving birth over 35.
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12. What is in vitro fertilization? What is its success rate? “Test-tube” method 13.Why are twins more frequent with in vitro fertilization? Multiple births are more frequent among IVF patients, because doctors typically transfer several zygotes at once in order to increase the likelihood of at least one live birth. 14.What are the genotype and phenotype? Genotype is the unique genetic blueprint of each individual. Phenotype is an individual’s particular set of observable characteristics. 15. To what do homozygous and heterozygous refer? Homozygous is when the chromosomes carry either 2 dominant or 2 recessive genes. Heterozygous is when the chromosomes are dominant and recessive. 16. Shirley Temple had red hair. What was her genotype for hair color? Homozygous recessive 17.What does polygenetic inheritance mean? What are some examples of it? Means many genes influence the phenotype. Skin color and eye color. 18.Describe mitochondrial inheritance.
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