SCIENCE
W03 Design Theory Bernoulli_spr18.pptx

# W03 Design Theory Bernoulli_spr18.pptx - W03 Design Theory...

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W03 Design Theory : The Basics As applied to fountains & moving water through a nozzle Bernoulli's Equation Pressure Height Velocity Continuity Equation Flow rate Major & Minor Losses

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Fluid Flow and Continuity Continuity tells us that whatever the mass of fluid in a pipe passing a particular point per second, the same mass must pass every other point in a second. The fluid is not accumulating or vanishing along the way. This means that where the pipe is narrower, the fluid is flowing faster Volume per unit time
Bernoulli’s Equation The general case, where both height and speed may change, is described by Bernoulli’s equation: This equation is essentially a statement of conservation of energy in a fluid.

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Continuity and Compressibility Most gases are easily compressible; most liquids are not. Therefore, the density of a liquid may be treated as constant (not true for a gas). mass flow is conserved volume flow is conserved
Bernoulli’s Equation When a fluid moves from a wider area of a pipe to a narrower one, its speed increases; therefore, work has been done on it. The kinetic energy of a fluid element is: Equating the work done to the increase in kinetic energy gives:

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Bernoulli’s Equation Where fluid moves faster , pressure is lower
The Continuity Equation Why does a hose with a nozzle shoot water further?

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