confucianism II-text.doc

confucianism II-text.doc - THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS...

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THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS Translated by and Commented on by Charles Miller Translated summer, 1990. When citing, refer to Resources for the Study of East Asian Language and Thought, URL: http://www.human.toyogakuen-u.ac.jp/~acmuller/contao/analects.htm Updated: 97.07.09 [Note: Miller transliterated the Chinese character for a human being as A jen @; it is by some scholars transliterated as A ren [email protected] Swidler] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------ 1:1 Confucius said: AIsn=t it a pleasure to study and practice what you have learned? Isn=t it also great when friends visit from distant places? If people do not recognize me and it doesn=t bother me, am I not a Superior [email protected] [Comment] Superior Man is a common English translation for the Chinese term ch=n-tzu which originally means ASon of a [email protected], someone from the nobility. In the Analects , Confucius imbues the term with a special meaning. Though sometimes used strictly in its original sense, it also refers to a person who has made significant progress in the Way ( Tao ) of self-cultivation, by practicing Righteousness, by loving treatment of parents, respect for elders, honesty with friends, etc. Though the ch=n-tzu is clearly a highly advanced human being, he is still distinguished from the category of sage ( sheng-jen ), who is, in the Analects more of a Adivine being,@ usually a model from great antiquity. The character of the Superior Man, in contrast to the sage, is being taught as a tangible model for all in the here and now. And although many descriptions of the requirements for ch=n-tzu status seem quite out of our reach, there are many passages where Confucius labels a contemporary, or one of his disciples a ASuperior Man,@ intending a complement. Thus, the categorization is not so rigid. One might want to compare the term ASuperior [email protected] to the Buddhist bodhisattva , in that both are the models for the tradition, both indicate a very high stage of human development as technical terms, yet both may be used colloquially to refer to a Areally good [email protected] 1:2 Yu Tzu said: AThere are few who have developed themselves filially and fraternally who enjoy offending their superiors. Those who do not enjoy offending superiors are never troublemakers. The Superior Man concerns himself with the fundamentals. Once the fundamentals are established, the proper way ( tao ) appears.
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Are not filial piety and obedience to elders fundamental to the enactment of jen [email protected] [Comment] The Chinese term jen has been translated into English as Ahumanity,@ Abenevolence,@ Agoodness,@ APerfect Goodness,@ etc. It is a difficult concept to translate because it doesn=t really refer to any specific type of virtue or positive endowment, but refers to an inner capacity possessed by all human beings to do good, as human beings should. This is the reason some have translated it as [email protected] The problem with this translation is that it does not indicate the [email protected] implied by the term jen.
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