Ebony king.docx - Ebony king Organic chemistry Lab Sec-03...

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Ebony king Organic chemistry Lab Sec-03 Professor Restrepo Synthesis and Nitration of Methyl benzoate Abstract: Electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used add electrophile in the aromatic ring. If the monosubstituted ring undergo the process of nitration. The nitration can be takes place at either ortho,para or meta. The position of the nitro group is determining by the already present group. In the IR, there is a strong peak at 1770.10cm -1 that shows the presence of carbonyl compound (C=O). the peak of aromatic eaters is in the region of 1730-1715cm -1 so ester is present in the aromatic compound.Strong peak at 1527cm -1 and 1324.64cm -1 the presence of nitro group attaches to some aromatic system.823.87 and 879.37 peaks are for aromatic C-N stretching.The IR spectrum of product and reactant show similar peaks but one difference is that in the product there are peaks for NO 2 and C-N bonds. The peak at 690cm -1 shows aromatic compound. The %age yield is 10.8%. Chemical equation:
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Mechanism:
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Introduction: Fischer Esterification: It is a type of esterification in which carboxylic acid is reflux with alcohol in the presence of catalyst. Most carboxylic acids are suitable for the reaction, but the alcohol should generally be a primary or secondary alkyl. Tertiary alcohols are prone to elimination. Commonly used catalysts for a Fischer esterification include sulfuric acid, tosylic acid, and Lewis acids such as scandium(III) triflate. Fischer esterification is an example of nucleophilic acyl substitution based on the electrophilicity of the carbonyl carbon and the nucleophilicity of an alcohol. However, carboxylic acids tend to be less reactive than esters as electrophiles. Additionally, in dilute neutral solutions they tend to be deprotonated anions (and thus unreactive as electrophiles). Though very kinetically slow without any catalysts (most esters are metastable), pure esters will tend to spontaneously hydrolyze in the presence of water, so when carried out "unaided", high yields for this reaction is quite unfavorable. Several steps can be taken to turn this unfavorable reaction into a favorable one. The reaction mechanism for this reaction has several steps: Proton transfer from acid catalyst to carbonyl oxygen increases electrophilicity of carbonyl carbon. The carbonyl carbon is then attacked by the nucleophilic oxygen atom of the alcohol Proton transfer from the oxonium ion to a second molecule of the alcohol gives an activated complex Protonation of one of the hydroxyl groups of the activated complex gives a new oxonium ion. Loss of water from this oxonium ion and subsequent deprotonation gives the ester.
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A generic mechanism for an acid Fischer esterification is shown below. . Electrophilic substitution reaction: The most characteristics feature of the aromatic compounds is substituted aromatic reactions. Aromatic compound has a pi electronic cloud exposed above and below its plane. They can therefore act as a source of electrons to an attacking electrophile and undergo electrophilic substitution reactions. synthesis of any aromatic compound can be
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