Exam 3 stuff.pdf - Grains all members of Poaceae(< 25 of...

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Grains – all members of Poaceae (<-­‐ 25% of world’s vegetation) usually bisexual flowers, fruit is caryopsis [dry, indehiscent, 1 seed] fresh/dry plant stems/leaves = forage for livestock Plant Anatomy Cereal = edible grain of certain grasses Culm = major branches of stems, hollow at internodes Stolon / Rhizomes = underground vegetative propagation structures of Perennial grasses Panicles = branched inflorescences of grasses Spikelets = subunit of panicle, made up of several florets (small flowers) Floret = made up of reduced perianth (lodicules), three well developed stamens , and a superior ovary with a single ovule and short style with two feathery stigmas - Floret is perfect/bisexual but incomplete (reduced perianth) lodicules = reduced perianth palea = inner bract of floret lemma = outer bract of floret, tip of which can grow an extension and help in dispersal bracts/glumes/chaff = other names for lemma + palea, they have to be removed from the grain, cannot be digested Other Terms gluten = complex of proteins, helps yeast undergo anaerobic respiration, expel CO 2 and make fluffy dough/bread Fruit Anatomy – the Grain germ = embryo endosperm = well developed, makes up majority of seed, contains nutrients, vitamins and a bit of oil bran = fused seed coat and pericarp aleurone layer = inside the bran, surrounding the endosperm, rich in protein, fats, acids. Aids embryo in germination. Scutellum = the single cotyledon attached to embryonic shoot with a coleoptile and a coleorhiza Coleoptile = forms shoot Coleo r hiza = forms r oot Grain Processing lodging = tangled up, bent hollow stems that fall to the ground during heavy rains and wind (hard to harvest) Shattering = natural process in grass plants that allows dispersal of mature fruit farther away from parent plant (lost grains to farmer) Threshing = removal of inedible glumes/hull/chaff/bracts from grain Winnowing = process of removing the dry broken chaff, mixed with the grains after the completion of threshing combines = modern machines that thresh and winnow the harvested grains Polishing/Pearling = process of removing bran, aleurone layer, and embryo from grain (leaves a white, refined grain that is less nutritious – only the endosperm) groats = broken grains, with minimal amount of bran removed Fortified/enriched = artificially added vitamin coating to polished grains (easily lost when washing/cooking) Whole Grains Council = nonprofit consumer advocacy group that places stamps on true whole grain products
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Rice, Orza sativa Poaceae GLUTEN-FREE ORIGIN : S Asia LEADING PRODUCER : China, India, Brazil OTHER NAMES : “ food for billions CONSIDERED : grain BOTANICALLY : caryopsis OVARY : Superior EDIBLE PART : seed without bracts SYMBOL : Fertility (SE Asia, U.S. in weddings) NUTRITION : mostly starch, little protein, thiamine (B1) in bran Sacred grain in Asia Paddy – is the name for both standing water fields and the rice coming out of the same Grown in the US too, CA/TX (texmati = texas + basmati) Beriberi – condition (nerve inflammation) caused by nutrition
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