Lab 4 Pre-Lab.docx

Lab 4 Pre-Lab.docx - Separation of a Three-Component...

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Separation of a Three-Component Mixture via Acid/Base Extraction Introduction The goal of this experiment is to separate three liquids from a mixture through acid/base extraction. Acid/base extraction is a type of liquid/liquid extraction that utilizes the intrinsic properties of acids and bases to separate them from one another. In this lab, acid/base extraction will be used to separate benzoic acid with hydrochloric acid, benzocaine with sodium hydroxide, and fluorenone with anhydrous sodium sulfate. The remaining solution of fluorenone and methylene chloride is separated by evaporating off the methylene chloride. The liquids will move among organic and immiscible liquid laers. Acidity level can separate the liquids, as benzoic acid is an acid, benzocaine is a base, and fluorenone is neutral. The acid/base extraction leads to transfers of protons that cause a shift in polarity. When mixed with methylene chloride, the three normally non-polar compounds will change their polarity. Polarity and functional groups are distinguishing characteristics of the liquids that will allow further separation from each other. Specific mechanisms of these acid/base conversions are shown below. Once the compounds are separated from each other, they can be analyzed individually via boiling point determination. Benzocaine Mechanism Benzoic Acid Mechanism
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Fluorenone Mechanism Table of Reagents
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Compoun d Structure Molecul ar Weight Boilin g Point Meltin g Point pKa Densi ty Solubilit y Benzocaine 165.189 g/mol 310.0° C 88- 90°C 11.4 9 1.17 g/mL Very slightly soluble in cold water Benzoic Acid 122.12 g/mol 249.2° C 122.41° C 4.2 .27 g/mL Slightly soluble in water Fluorenone 180.192 g/mol 647.6° C 583.5° C N/A 1.13 g/mL Insoluble Sodium Hydroxide 39.997
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