Lecture 16- self note.docx - Lecture 16 Flour...

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Lecture 16. Flour mixtures (batters and doughs) o Include a large variety of baked products Quick breads: muffin, biscuits No leavening required, quick compared to yeast bread Pastry Cakes: shortened and un-shortened Un-shortened have no fat in it. Ex. Angel food cake Shortened cake contain fat. Ex. Birth day cake Cookies Yeast breads: time dependent (time for rising) o Primary ingredients: flour, liquid, fat, egg, sugar, leavening agent, and salt Flour Protein, starch content structure and body Wheat: principal grain (endosperm, bran, and sperm) o Milling of white flour: remove endosperm from the bran and germ of the wheat kernel Protein and sugar maillard reaction May contribute yeast food for biological leavening Contains enzymes which may weaken the structure (lots of enzyme sticky dough) Liquid (Milk, water, fruit juice, potato water etc) Solvent for salt, sugar and other solutes Chemical reaction o With baking powder CO2 produced Gluten development: mechanical mixing (knitting, stirring) o Addition of water producing gluten (can’t be formed without liquid) o Reducing the handling of dough less development of gluten Leavening and gelatinization during baking (steam leavening) Fat Tenderization o Inhibits gluten development and starch gelatinization Extends shelf-life (in baking) Add stability to batter through emulsification (shortening) o Influence the smoothness of the batter (ex. Shortened cakes) o Monoglycerides and diglycerides in the fat increase the degree of emulsification of the fat allowing it to be dispersed in a small particle throughout the batter o Addition of emulsifiers to shortened cake batters has been shown to increase volume and produce a finer texture Plastic fat o Some triglyceride molecules are present in a liquid form, some are crystallized in a solid form o More plastic fats are more spreadable over a greater surface area of flour particles than less plastic fats o At 64’F (18’C), butter is less plastic than at 72 to 83’F (22 to 28’C) o Lard more shortening power than most hydrogenated fats, butter and margarine o Oils, high in polyunsaturated fats, -> more tender pastries than lards o Trapping of air bubbles (leavening Creaming fat and sugar together and vigorously beating air cells entrapped in the mixture Eggs Egg proteins coagulate on beating and give some structure or rigidity to the cell walls surrounding the air bubbles.
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Egg yolks: flavour and color, emulsity8ing agents(lipoprotein), incorporate air, inhibit starch gelatinization Sugar Sweeten Facilitate air incorporation by shortening Tenderizes: inhibit development of gluten and gelatinization of starch o Sugar ties up water, making less water available for the gluten more manipulation is needed to develop the gluten structure when sugar is present Elevates temperature at which egg and flour protein denature
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  • Winter '18
  • Flour, white flour

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