Chapter 1 Notes.docx

Chapter 1 Notes.docx - EXS 2400 Chapter 1 The Basics of...

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EXS 2400 Chapter 1: The Basics of Nutrition 1.1 Nutrition: The Basics Diet— usual pattern of food choices Factors that influence your food choices: food that you enjoy, affordable food, food that is prepared easily or obtained quickly, your family’s ethnic and cultural background, friends, food advertising, your beliefs, your moods Food is a basic human need for survival. You become hungry and search for something to eat when your body needs nutrients, the life-sustaining substances in food. Nutrients— chemicals necessary for proper body functioning Nutrients are necessary for the growth, maintenance, and repair of your body’s cells. You have no instinctual drive that enables you to select the appropriate mix of nutrients your body requires for proper functioning To eat well, you need to learn about the nutritional value of foods and the effects that your diet can have on your health A person must be motivated to make changes in their diet Why Learn about Nutrition In the U.S., poor eating habits contribute to several leading causes of death (heart disease, cancer, stroke, type 2 diabetes) According to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans , people can reduce their chances of developing serious diseases that contribute to premature deaths by consuming more fruits, vegetables, unsalted nuts, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, and whole-grain cereals, as well as exercising regularly. Introduction to Nutrition Nutrition— scientific study of nutrients and how the body uses these substances o Understanding nutrition requires learning about chemistry. Chemistry— study of the composition and characteristics of matter and changes that can occur to it Food is matter; therefore, it contains chemicals, some of which are nutrients. There are six classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats and other lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. Your body uses certain nutrients for energy, growth and development, and regulation of processes, including the repair and maintenance of cells. Cell— smallest living functional unit in an organism o Cells need the nutrients in food to carry out their metabolic activities Metabolism— total of all chemical processes that take place in living cells What is an Essential Nutrient? Essential nutrient— nutrient that must be supplied by food o Body does not synthesize the nutrient or make enough of it to meet its needs o Water is the most essential nutrient There are 3 key features that help identify an essential nutrient: o 1. If the nutrient is missing from the diet, a deficiency disease occurs Deficiency disease— state of health that occurs when a nutrient is missing from the diet The deficiency disease is a state of health characterized by certain abnormal physiological changes (functioning of the body)
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Signs of disease: visible or measurable changes (rashes, failure to grow properly, elevated blood pressure)
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