Chapter 3 Notes.docx - EXS 2400 Chapter 3 Planning...

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EXS 2400 Chapter 3: Planning Nutritious Diets 3.1 From Requirements to Standards Your lifestyle reflects your health-related behaviors, including your dietary practices and physical activity habits. Americans of all ages may reduce their risk of chronic disease by adopting nutritious diets and engaging in regular physical activity. Consumers need practical advice to help them make decisions that can promote more healthy lifestyles. What Is a Nutrient Requirement? By using research methods, scientists have been able to estimate the amount of many nutrients required by the body. A requirement can be defined as the smallest amount of a nutrient that maintains a defined level of nutritional health. In general, this amount, when consumed daily, prevents the nutrient’s deficiency disease. The requirement for a particular nutrient varies to some degree from person to person. A person’s age, sex, general health status, physical activity level, and use of medications and drugs are among the factors that influence his or her nutrient requirements. Many nutrients are stored in the body, including vitamin D and most minerals. Major storage sites include the liver, body fat, and bones. Other nutrients, such as vitamin C and most B vitamins, are not stored by the body. When your consumption of certain nutrients is more than enough to meet your needs, the body stores the excess. When your intake of a stored nutrient is low or needs for this nutrient become increased, such as during recovery from illness, your body withdraws some from storage. Dietary Reference Intakes Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) encompass a variety of daily energy and nutrient intake standards that nutrition experts in the U.S. use as references when making dietary recommendations. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)— various energy and nutrient intake standards for Americans DRIs are intended to help people reduce their risk of nutrient deficiencies and excesses, prevent disease, and achieve optimal health. The standards are the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), which includes Estimated Energy Requirement (EER); Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). A group of nutrition scientists, the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine, develop DRIs. Estimated Average Requirement Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)— amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of 50% of healthy people in a life stage/sex group Life stage/sex groups classify people according to age, sex, and whether females are pregnant or breastfeeding.
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To establish an EAR for a nutrient, the Food and Nutrition Board identifies a physiological marker, a substance in the body that reflects proper functioning and can be measured. This marker indicates whether the level of a nutrient in the body is adequate.
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