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Lecture 17 objectives.doc

Lecture 17 objectives.doc - Lecture 17 objectives 1 Review...

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Lecture 17 objectives 1. Review the specific, acquired immune system, and contrast it with the innate, natural, non-specific immune system. Name their cellular and non-cellular components. -Specific immune systems respond to foreign antigens. - Specific grows as you age, while innante is what you are born with -cellular and non-cellular are in graph 2. Explain what antigens are, describe what is meant by an epitope, and list the chemical types of antigens. -Antigens (antibody generators) are bacterial cell wall polysaccharides or proteins associated with many pathogens and their secretions. -Bacterial DNA and lipids can also be antigens under certain circumstances. -Epitopes: A protein actually has many antigenic sites in its molecules. They are small segments usually consisting of 9 amino-acids. Each of these segments is called an epitope. 1
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3. The specific immune system can be divided into two categories – antibody mediated (AMI) and cell-mediated (CMI). Describe, contrast and explain. This is described in detail in the text, but is only briefly referred to in lecture. 1-Antibody mediated: Involves B cells. Involves B-lymphocytes which have on their surfaces B- cell receptors. When challenged by an antigen it secretes antibodies. 2-Cell mediated: Involves T cells. T cell receptors bind directly to antigen on the surface on bacteria/parasite/virus. 4. Describe the three classes of lymphocytes. What is the difference between a plasma cell and a resting lymphocyte – be specific, and refer to their appearance under the electron microscope. 1-T-lymphocytes: Responsible for cell-mediated immune responses. 2-B-lymphocytes: With the assistance of helper T-lymphocytes, secrete antibodies when activated (plasma cells). Primarily responsible for antibody responses. ---Activated B-lymphocytes are called plasma cells and they secrete antibodies. 3-Natural Killer Cells: Attack by hand to hand combat. Kill target cell via apoptosis. Not really regarded as the specific immune system, more involved with innate immune system. T and B look similar when resting. When stimulated by antigen exposure, B start secreting large amounts of antibody and enormous increase in endoplasmic reticulum and golgi. T do not secrete antibodies, and do not have much endo reticulum. They are vital to immune response and assist B. 2
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5. Describe the development of B- and T-lymphocytes. What is DiGeorge syndrome ( 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) ? - In the bone marrow we produce the precursors for all lymphocytes. -In the bone marrow, immunologically competent B-lymphocytes are created and they migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue. They do not stay there, they tend to circulate between the lymph and the blood but return back to original secondary lymphoid tissue. By circulating, they increase the
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