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Chapter 4 Notes.docx - EXS 2400 Chapter 4 Body Basics 4.1...

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EXS 2400 Chapter 4: Body Basics 4.1 Nutrition: Chemistry Foundations Chemistry—the study of the composition and characteristics of matter, and the changes that it can undergo Human physiology—the study of how the human body functions Principles of chemistry and human physiology form the foundation for the scientific study of nutrition. The foods you eat and the air you breathe provide nutrients and oxygen, the raw materials (matter) that your cells need to survive and function. Basic Chemistry Concepts There are chemicals in your food, but they are not necessarily harmful. Chemicals make up food as well as every other aspects of your environment; air, water, rocks, and other forms of matter contain chemicals. In fact, you are a complex collection of chemicals, much of which is organized into cells. From Atoms to Compounds Matter is comprised of atoms that contain certain particles, including protons and electrons. Protons— positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom Protons are positively charged particles in the nucleus, the central region of an atom. Electrons— small, negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus of an atom Electrons are small negatively charged particles that form a cloud surrounding the nucleus. The number of electrons surrounding the nucleus equals the number of protons within the nucleus. Thus, the negative and positive charges cancel out each other, making an atom neutral, which means it has no electrical charge. More than 100 different types of atoms exist, and each type is an element, a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary chemical or physical means. Element— each type of atom; substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary chemical or physical means Elements are the “building blocks” of matter. Nutrition-related elements in the body: o Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sulfur (S), Sodium (Na), Chloride (Cl - ), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Iodide (I - ), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Selenium (Se), Molybdenum (Mo), Fluoride* (F - ) *Although fluoride is not essential, the mineral helps strengthen teeth and bones. An element is essential if the body cannot function normally without it and the element must be supplied by the diet. Chemists use letters as symbols to represent elements. Minerals— elements that are found in the Earth’s crust Minerals are elements, such as calcium, iron, and potassium, that are found in the Earth’s crust. Many minerals are essential nutrients. However, not every mineral is in living things or is necessary for life. Your external environment has natural and human-made forms of matter that may contain elements such as mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and cadmium (Cd).
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