Lecture 1 objectives.doc

Lecture 1 objectives.doc - Lecture 1 objectives 1...

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Lecture 1 objectives 1. Distinguish cellular respiration from “body” respiration. Why does the body need oxygen and why do we breathe out carbon dioxide? Identify the steps in metabolism of glucose that generate carbon dioxide and how many carbon dioxide molecules are produced at each step. During cellular respiration, oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide and water are formed. The oxygen is obtained from the air we breathe into the lungs and the carbon dioxide is flushed from the system by the air we breathe out from the lungs. Oxygen is needed to carry out all body functions. We would have no power or ability to do activities. We breathe out carbon dioxide because it is just a natural form of repiration. CO2 maintains the pH of all body fluids. The steps for glucose are as follows: 1. Glycolysis 2. Production of acetyl CoA 2 CO2 3. Krebs cycle 4 CO2 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 2a. Describe the overall anatomy of the respiratory system, from the nose to the alveoli. Upper respiratory system Nose Pharynx Lower Respiratory System Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs 2b.. Describe the cells that line various parts of the respiratory system, from the nose to the alveol, and explain what is meant by the “mucociliary escalator.” 1
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1. Ciliated Cells: pseudostratified in the trachea and bronchi, simple columnar in the bronchioles 2. Goblet Cells: secrete mucus 3. Basal Cells: stem cells 4. Neuroendocrine Cells: These cells have a complex innervation and have been implicated in processes ranging from lung development and respiratory physiology to repair, disease, and carcinogenesis 5. Clara Cells: serous glandular cells that secrete a surfactant like material that appears to coat and protect the bronchiolar lining. They are also epithelial stem cells. There is also some evidence they detoxify noxious gases inhaled air using cytochrome P-450 enzymes in rough ER 2c. Describe the disease cystic fibrosis and what causes it. CF is hereditary disease. It is where there are mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The result is disrupted ion transport in the epithelium, reducing airway surface hydration and impairing mucus clearance. This lead to chronic bacterial infections and tissue destruction. 2
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4. Describe in detail the anatomy of the lungs.
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