Lecture 9 objectives.doc

Lecture 9 objectives.doc - LECTURE 9 OBJECTIVES 1 Describe...

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LECTURE 9 OBJECTIVES 1. Describe what is meant by an allele. An allele is a version of a gene that might be found on one of two homologous chromosome in a diploid cell. 2. Describe what can happen to the offspring if a gene for an enzyme on the maternal chromosome is defective, but the corresponding gene on the paternal chromosome is normal — give one example. It is generally tolerated. The half amount of normal enzyme manufactured by the normal gene is sufficient to maintain normal cellular function. Phenylketonuria is one example of this issue. If you get a double dose of the defective allele you will have the disease. 3. Describe what can happen to the offspring if the gene for a protein such as hemoglobin is defective on the maternal chromosome, but is normal on the paternal chromosome — give one example. This would be called incomplete dominance. There are equal parts hemoglobin A and hemoglobin S. Sickle Cell Anemia is one example 4. Draw a Punnett square to predict the likely outcome of a mother who is a carrier of the phenylketonuria gene and a father who is not a carrier of the gene. Repeat this for the situation where both the mother and the father are carriers. M F P P p Pp Pp P PP PP So the child would not have disease, but 50% chance of being carrier. M F P p P PP Pp p Pp pp 25% chance of nothing wrong, 25% chance of displaying defect, 50% being carrier Repeat for sickle cell disease. M F P P P PP PP p Pp Pp So the child would not have disease, but 50% chance of incomplete dominance. M F P p P PP Pp p Pp pp 25% chance of nothing wrong, 25% chance of displaying defect, 50% of incomplete dominance. 5. Describe the disease phenylketonuria. It is an absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Individuals who suffer from it cannot utilize the essential amino acid phenylalanine and are in danger of becoming severely mentally retarded unless they observe appropriate dietary guidelines.
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6. Describe what is meant by the terms dominant and recessive as applied to alleles.
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