Lecture 8 objectives.doc

Lecture 8 objectives.doc - Lecture 8 objectives 1 Describe...

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Lecture 8 objectives 1. Describe the structure of DNA. DNA is made up of a string of nucleotides, nucleotides are made of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. 2. Explain what is meant by a gene , and describe the structure of a gene . Different nucleotide sequences in the DNA of our cells code for every protein in our body. each sequence specifying a given protein is called a gene 3. Describe transcription. Transcription is the process by which DNA is copied ( transcribed ) to mRNA, which carries the information needed for protein synthesis . 4. Describe translation . The mRNA formed in transcription is transported out of the nucleus, into the cytoplasm, to the ribosome (the cell's protein synthesis factory). Here, it directs protein synthesis. Messenger RNA is not directly involved in protein synthesis − transfer RNA (tRNA) is required for this. The process by which mRNA directs protein synthesis with the assistance of tRNA is called translation . 5. Describe how gene expression may be regulated post-transcriptionally and the importance of DNA methylation and acylation (acetylation or methylation) of histones ( epigenetics ). Genes can be regulated post transcriptionally by triggering destruction of the mRNA or by suppressing translation. The methylated histones suppress gene expression and then when ready, acetylation activates gene expression again.
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