Unit 1-A-PSY248new2017 (1).ppt - (e.g.sucking reflexes...

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What this course is about Some things people don’t need to learn: “Innate” or inborn knowledge (e.g. sucking  reflexes) This course is about everything else—what you  learn from experience Experience leads to changes in knowledge  and behavior
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Two perspectives on how experience changes you Learning Perspective Experience Change in Behavior Memory (Cognitive) Perspective Experience Change in what organism knows
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Learning vs Cognitive (Memory) Perspectives Learning focuses on simple tasks Pavlovian Conditioning built-in food salivation reflex US UR CS tone food salivation       tone salivation new learned association
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Operant Conditioning Animal makes random response then accidentally presses bar R Re (response) (reward or reinforcement) Animal is more likely to press bar Memory perspective focuses on complex tasks Recall Present a list of words   (STUDY) (wait) Write down all the words   (TEST)
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Word Completion S       M       T   O What’s the word? Question answering What is the red pigment that carries oxygen in the blood called? The Learning Perspective uses Animals as  Subjects can control environment belief that laws of learning apply to all  animals
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The memory perspective uses humans we care more about humans language stimuli The learning perspective takes an Associationistic Approach Mind is a collection of innate reflexes and learned associations stored in the brain Complex behavior is gradually built up out of simple associations
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Memory perspective adopts the information processing approach The brain is a computer It has software or programming called the  mind It has a “programming language” Experience constantly adds to the program It has a “central processor” (innate knowledge) It has a large “hard disk” (long-term store)
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42
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NID 42
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FES 16
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BOJ 23
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FES 16
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BOJ 23
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NID 42
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NID Experiment Learning Perspective: “It’s a conditioning study!” 42 unconditioned stimulus (US) “forty-two” unconditioned response (UR) NID 42 “forty-two” conditioned stimulus (CS) after learning NID    “forty-two”  Memory Perspective:  “It’s a memory experiment” cue item-to-be-recalled study NID 42 test NID ? cued recall
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Pavlovian Conditioning Definitions food US air in eye shock . . . . . .  . . . . . . salivation UR blink “ouch!”  CS  US tone food salivation tone salivation CR conditioned response Sometimes the CR is like the UR (salivation) Sometimes the CR is NOT like the UR Example: If US is shock, CR is fear and behavior that compensates for pain Conclude: the CR prepares the animal  for the US
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