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Intrumental Conditioning.docx

Intrumental Conditioning.docx - Instrumental Conditioning...

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Instrumental Conditioning INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING: A specific behaviour leads to a specific consequence The learning of a contingency between behaviour and consequence PRIMARY REINFORCER - Biological - food, pleasure, sleep SECONDARY REINFORCER - Has no biological value - stickers, tokens, money, grades EDWARD L. THORNDIKE Began his experiment by putting cats in a puzzle box. The puzzle box could be opened if cat performed a specific behaviour such as pulling on a rope. Outside the box was food for motivation. Recorded escape time and the cats engaged in random behaviour. As the cats struggle, the cats would pull on the rope by accident. Dramatic step down for later trials. The frequency of the random behaviour gradually decreased over time. Suggested that animals follow a specific stimulus process with little credit for consciousness. There was never a “Aha moment” like humans. STAMPED IN Rope pulling lead to food STAMPED OUT Random behaviours like turning in circles LAW OF EFFECT Behaviour that produce positive consequences will be stamped in and performed more frequently. Behaviour with negative consequences are stamped out and performed less frequently. TYPES OF INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING
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REWARD TRAINING Behaviour is likely to increase if presented with a reward PRESENTATION of a POSITIVE reinforcer OMISSION TRAINING
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