Midterm Review.docx - Scientific Method 1 Theory general...

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Scientific Method 1 - Theory, general set of ideas of how the way a world works 2 - Hypothesis, predictions about theory 3 - Research Method - how the hypothesis will be tested 4 - Collect Data - take measurements 5 - Analyze Data - accept or reject the original hypothesis 6 - Report Findings - publish articles in scholarly journals, research must be accurate 7 - Revise Theories - incorporate new information about our world Anecdotal Evidence - gathered from self or others, insufficient to draw scientific conclusions -Single experience may not be representative -Personal experience may not represent others Experimental Group - variation of independent group Controlled Groups In BOTH GROUPS, participants must be as similar as possible. Should only differ in independant variable. Theory: Collect a general set of ideas about the way the world works Hypothesis: Form a testable statement guided by theories that make specific predictions about the relationship between variables CLASSIC CONDITIONING TWO TYPES OF UNCONSCIOUS LEARNING Classic Conditioning Learning that one event accurately and reliably predicts the occurrence of a second event. Associate two related events Ivan Pavlov, late 1800’s Classic Conditioning is also known as “Pavlovian Conditioning” Interested in the state of digestion, made observation that dogs began to salivate even before the food went into their mouth. His experiment: The sound of a metronome signaled to a dog that food was about to be delivered. Conditional upon training because following training, a dog would begin to salivate to the sound of metronome alone ( CONDITIONAL REFLEX ) He was studying a CONTINGENT relationship, one leads to another - Signal leads to Event. Contingencies: When one stimulus reliably predicts the presentation of another. (i.e lightning means a thunderstorm is coming) Just a mere sight of a lemon can cause your mouth to water
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Contingencies are beneficial for survival If an antelope sees a predator too late, he might not have enough time to escape but if he can associate the predator with sound or smell, he can flee. Instrumental Conditioning Actions and Consequences Classical Conditioning Trials - A lot of learning occurs quickly, and then rate of learning slows over time. COMPONENTS OF CLASSIC CONDITIONING Unconditional Stimulus (US) Occurs naturally, prior to learning e.g Food placed in your mouth would naturally generate a response without any training The Conditional Stimulus (CS) Paired with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency CS = Metronome, US = Food in Dog’s Mouth Unconditional Response (UR) When a US occurs, a UR always follows Biologically programmed reflex The Contingent Response (CR) Response that occurs once the contingency between the Conditional Stimulus and the Unconditional Stimulus has been learned Similar to Unconditional Response, sound of metronome will lead to salivation The acquired reaction triggered once the pairing of
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