Lecture 8b.pptx - Lecture 8 Executive Branch Key Terms 22nd...

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Lecture 8: Executive Branch
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Key Terms 22 nd amendment 25 th amendment Cabinet Veto Line-item veto The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878 War Powers Resolution Executive Office of the President (EOP) Pardon Executive privilege “going public” Executive orders Office of Management and Budget White House staff U.S. v. Nixon (1974) Clinton v. City of New York ( 1998) Emoluments Clause 2
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Presidential Qualifications Constitution requires that President and Vice President: Be natural born citizens At least 35 years old Resident of the United States for 14 years or longer 3
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Twenty-Second Amendment A two-term limit became the tradition, but it was not written into law. Not until FDR did anyone successfully win re-election more than two times (FDR won four times) This led to the 22 nd amendment , which limits presidents to two four-year terms. A vice president who succeeds a president due to death, resignation or impeachment is eligible for a maximum of ten years in office 4
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Losing re-election Four presidents have lost re-election for a second term since 1900: William Taft (R) lost to Woodrow Wilson (D) 1912 Herbert Hoover (R) lost to FDR (D) 1932 Jimmy Carter (D) lost to Ronald Reagan (R) 1980 George H.W. Bush (R) lost to Bill Clinton (D) 1992 Technically, Gerald Ford didn’t lose re-election because he wasn’t elected for his first term; he took the office when Nixon resigned. But he did lose in the election following his only term to Jimmy Carter in 1976. 5
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Vice President Framers originally included VP as an immediate official stand- in for the president in time of death or some other emergency. After more debate, the VP was made presiding officer of the Senate (to vote in the event of a tie) These are the VP’s only constitutional powers 6
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How many times has a VP assumed office because of the death or resignation of a president? Year and Reason President VP 1841, Death William Henry Harrison John Tyler 1850, Death Zachary Tyler Millard Fillmore 1865, Assassination Abraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson 1881, Assassination James Garfield Chester Arthur 1901, Assassination William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt 1923, Death Warren Harding Calvin Coolidge 1945, Death Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry Truman 1963, Assassination John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson 1974, Resignation Richard Nixon Gerald Ford 7
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Rules of Succession VP would assume office if president died or resigned Presidential Succession Act 1947 : lists, in order, those in line to succeed the president. Has never been used because VP has always taken office 1. VP 2. Speaker of the House 3. President pro tempore 4. Secretary of State…. All the way to 18. Secretary of Homeland Security 8
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Twenty-fifth amendment Passed in 1967 Gives president power to appoint new VP if vacancy occurs, subject to a simple majority approval by both houses of Congress Allows Vp and a majority of the Cabinet to deem a president unable to fulfill his duties.
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