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Masterfile of Psych 1X03 Notes.docx

Masterfile of Psych 1X03 Notes.docx - INTRO TO PSYCH 1X03...

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INTRO TO PSYCH 1X03 PSYCHOLOGY is the study of self Strategies YOU! Think, feel, develop, learn, love, interact and grow Think critically about common knowledge and information EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY - collect, evaluate and interpret information to draw conclusions Psychologists study uses multiple level of analysis from various fields (mathematical, social, biological) Psychological Biological Environmental Behavioural Perspective did not believe internal mechanism could be measured Cognitive Perspective was in favour of studying internal mechanisms in psychology Reductionism : All human behaviour can be reduced to the biology of the brain Developmental Perspective - how behaviours develop in a lifespan Must think creatively when studying young children Evolutionary Perspective - how behaviours develop over many generations Socio-Cultural Perspective - influence of group of an individual, individual on a group, group on a group How do these groups respond to various scenarios? CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning allows us to associate two related events . The learning of a contingency between a particular signal and a later event that are paired in time and/or space. Instrumental Conditioning allows us to associate actions and consequences . Pavlov, Conditional Reflex (conditional upon training) : The sound of a metronome signalled that food was ready to be delivered. After training, the dog was salivating when he heard the metronome Classic Conditioning is also known as “Pavlovian Conditioning” Interested in the state of digestion, made observation that dogs began to salivate even before the food went into their mouth. His experiment: The sound of a metronome signaled to a dog that food was about to be delivered.
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He was studying a CONTINGENT relationship, one leads to another - Signal leads to Event. Contingencies: When one stimulus reliably predicts the presentation of another. Learning contingencies can be beneficial for survival. Classical Conditioning Trials - A lot of learning occurs quickly, and then rate of learning slows over time. US - Unconditional Stimulus - Any event that occurs naturally CS - Conditional Stimulus - Previously neutral stimulus that is paired with the US - e.g Metronome UR - Unconditional Response - The response that the US triggers - When a US occurs, a UR always follows. - Biological reflex CR - Conditioned Response - Similar to the UR Response - Response to the CS *UR AND CR are the same since they are a response! Acquisition: The process by which a contingency between the CS and US is learned. Takes several trials; learning happens during the early trials. Negatively accelerated increasing functions. Contingency between a CS and US may be formed in one trial Extinction: The loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US.
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