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Matlab Lecture Notes: Section 11.1 (Basic Concepts) Probability is a measure of the “likelihood” of a certain event or a combination of events occurring. In the study of probability, we’ll use some new terms: An experiment is any observation or measurement of a random phenomenon All the possible results of an experiment are outcomes The set of all possible outcomes is the sample space A particular collection, or subset, of the sample space is called an event Theoretical Probability: If an event ? has n (E) equally likely outcomes and its sample space S has n (S) equally likely outcomes, the theoretical probability of event , ? is: = ? ? ? ? ? ? Examples: (1) What is the probability of drawing a jack from a deck of 52 cards? P (Jack) = 4/52 = 1/13 (2) What is the probability of drawing an even numbered card from a deck of 52 cards? P (even) = 20/52 = 5/13 (3) What is the probability of having exactly one boy in a family of three children? = 3/8 Odds : If a is the number of events favorable to event E are a and b is the number of remaining outcomes (unfavorable to event E), then the odds in favor of E are a:b and the odds against E are b:a. Examples: (1) If 20% of the students in Sue’s class failed the first test, what are the odds against Sue’s failing the test? 10:2
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Matlab (2) If the odds in favor of winning a game of chance are 1 to 7, what is the probability that you will win?
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