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Chapter 10 Notes.docx - EXS 2400 Chapter 10 Energy Balance...

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EXS 2400 Chapter 10: Energy Balance and Weight Control 10.1 The Obesity Epidemic In the U.S., overweight and obesity are widespread nutritional problems that have reached epidemic proportions. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, overweight refers to having extra body weight that is contributed by bone, muscle, body fat, and/or body water. o Ex: professional basketball player may be “overweight” because of his muscular body build, not because he has excess body fat Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive and unhealthy amounts of body fat. It is important to recognize that some body fat is essential for good health. However, people who are overweight or obese (“overfat”) have a greater risk for serious chronic health conditions and diseases than people who have healthy body weights. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity To determine whether a person’s weight is healthy, overweight, or obese, medical experts generally use the body mass index (BMI). BMI is a numerical value based on the relationship between body weight and risk of chronic health problems associated with excess body fat. According to data collected from a national survey, almost 69% of American adults over the age of 20 were either overweight or obese in 2009-2010. One-third of Americans were overweight and more than one-third of them were obese. The percent of obese adults increased by almost 60% between 1988-1994 and 2009-2010. People who are classified as being obese can be further categorized into a subgroup of individuals who are “extremely obese.” In 2009-2010, over 6% of Americans were classified as being extremely obese. This percentage more than doubled since 1988-1994. The most recent data from 2009-2010, however, indicate that the increase in cases of obesity among American adults may be slowing or leveling off. Compared to non-Hispanic white adults, overweight and obesity are more common among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American adults, particularly among non-Hispanic black women. According to experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cultural, behavioral, and environmental factors may be largely responsible for racial/ethnic differences in obesity rates. The prevalence of obesity among American children and adolescents has also risen sharply over the past two decades. Public health experts are very concerned about the high prevalence of obesity among children, because these youngsters are more likely to mature into obese adults than are children who are not obese. Overweight and obesity rates are also rising rapidly throughout the world (“globesity”). In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that worldwide, more than 1 billion adults were overweight and 500 million adults were obese.
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