Studies on social capital.docx

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1. Studies on social capital (social network ties) As stated by the interview, except for the proactive behavior of the employees, social ties also play an important role in the low productivity of the company. To remind, there are two main ways for the employees to have the chance for the training. First, they can get the training by their own proactive behavior – which has been mentioned above. Second, the employer will do the selection based on their understanding about their employees. Here can come to the possibility that their understanding may be based not only on the human capital but also the social capital as well, since there is no definition or written requirements/ factors made by the company. Therefore, the assumption here is that the decision of choosing the talent for the training is based on both human capital and social capital. Human capital means the level of education, work experience, relevant level of language, work experiences. In other words, human capital is the job-related factors embodied in the ability of commodity production. Contrast to human capital, social capital is non-job-related factors. In the context of social network theory, Coleman (1988, p. 16) (as cited in Bossche and Segers, 2012, p. 39) proposed it as following “unlike other forms of capital, social capital inheres in the structure of relations between actors and among actors”. 1.1. Improving social network ties by social media uses These days, with the development of the new advanced technologies, social network ties are built not only by traditional way of “face-to-face” interaction but also via social media such as Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn and so forth. The employees use social media for different needs. According to the traditional U&G studies, there are three major types of needs for social media uses social needs (the need for making contact with family, friends and acquaintances); hedonic needs (the need for pleasures or entertainment); and cognitive needs (the need for searching and gaining more information). By using the social media to fulfill their needs, not only does the employee’s social network expand, for examples, just by commenting their colleague’s picture on Facebook or posting a photo on the Instagram, but also the understanding about their colleagues. Together with the benefits, these ties are noted as social capital by Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998). According to Adler and Kwon (2002), social capital provides a source of information and other valuable benefits that lead to the ultimate improvement in job performance. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) (as cited in H. Ali-Hassan et
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