Microbiology Study guide for Exam 5.docx

Microbiology Study guide for Exam 5.docx - Study Guide for...

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Study Guide for Exam 5 Chapter 16: 1. Differentiate innate and adaptive immunity a. Which defense system, innate or adaptive immunity, prevents entry of microbes into the body? b. Innate – defense against any pathogen c. Adaptive – immunity or resistance to a specific pathogen d. Innate system prevents entry of microbes into the body with mucous membranes, skin, and normal flora 2. Describe the role of the skin and mucous membranes in innate immunity. a. Identify one physical factor and one chemical factor that prevent microbes from entering the body through skin and mucous membranes i. Physical (skin)– keratin blocks pathogens from entering ii. Chemical (skin) – skin has low pH of about 3-5 iii. Physical (mucous membrane) – mucus traps microbes iv. Chemical (mucous membrane) – lysozymes b. Skin and mucous membranes are part of the first line of defense in innate immunity. 3. Describe the role of normal flora microbes in innate immunity. a. Distinguish microbial antagonism from commensalism i. Microbial antagonism – normal flora suppress the growth of pathogens, benefitting the humans, which are the host ii. Commensalism – when one organism benefits and the other is unaffected b. Normal flora microbes suppress growth of transient organisms by antagonism and competitive exclusion. 4. Classify leukocytes (white blood cells) a. Granulocytes – basophil, neutrophil, eosinophil b. Phagocytes – neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte, macrophage i. (monocytes mature into macrophages) c. Lymphocytes – T cell and B cell 5. Describe the roles of granulocytes and monocytes. a. Compare the structures and functions of monocytes and neutrophils. b. Role of granulocytes and monocytes – monocytes are for phagocytosis (engulfing pathogens). Granulocytes are for phagocytic and produce histamines (basophils), antihistamines (eosinophils), are toxic to parasites (eosinophils) 6. Describe the six different types of white blood cells, and name a function for each type. a. Neutrophils – phagocytic b. Basophils – produce Heparin and Histamine c. Eosinophils – produce antihistamines, toxic to parasites, some phagocytosis d. Monocytes – phagocytic as macrophages in tissue
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e. Macrophages – phagocytic f. Lymphocytes – specific immunity, antibody production 7. What is the function of the lymph nodes? a. 8. Define phagocyte and phagocytosis. a. Phagocyte – WBC that can engulf and digest pathogens b. Phagocytosis – process of engulfing and digesting pathogen 9. Describe the process of phagocytosis, and include the stages of adherence and ingestion a. 1. Chemotaxis and adherence of microbe to phagocyte b. 2. Ingestion of microbe by phagocyte c. 3. Formation of a phagosome d. 4. Fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome e. 5. Digestion of ingested microbe by enzymes f. 6. Formation of residual body containing indigestible material g. 7. Discharge of waste materials 10. Identify six mechanisms of avoiding destruction by phagocytosis a. 1. Inhibit adherence: M proteins, capsules b. 2. Kill phagocytes: Leukocidins c. 3. Lyse phagocytes: membrane attack complex
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